Published 16 Tháng mười một 2021


Cracking the Code: How product codes can support conservation and combat climate change

For global governments to combat the climate crisis with nature-based solutions, TRAFFIC reveals how examining HS Codes, used to monitor worldwide goods trade, can uncover illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade patterns that may have consequences on climate action and conservation efforts.

Cracking the Code Platform

Cracking the Code: An analysis of customs HS codes used in the trade in wild animals and plants from Africa to Asia

Report author(s):
E. Drinkwater, W. Outhwaite, T. Oldfield, C. Floros

Publication date:
November 2021


  1. The UN Comtrade Database is a compilation of reported global transactions, categorised into HS codes, voluntarily submitted by trading parties.
  2. The Harmonized System classification is a six-digit standard code used to classify globally traded products. They are currently used by customs authorities around the world to identify the duty and tax rates for specific types of products.

This report was generously funded by Arcadia; a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin via TRAFFIC’s Reducing Trade Threats to Africa’s Wild Species and Ecosystems (ReTTA) Project.

About Arcadia

Arcadia is a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin. It supports charities and scholarly institutions that preserve cultural heritage and the environment. Arcadia also supports projects that promote open access and all of its awards are granted on the condition that any materials produced are made available for free online. Since 2002, Arcadia has awarded more than $777 million to projects around the world. For more information, visit