Manuel Lopez / CIFOR / Flickr

Review: Options for Managing and Tracing

Wild Animal Trade Chains to Reduce Zoonotic Risk

Manuel Lopez / CIFOR / Flickr


Published 6 July 2022


TRAFFIC outlines options for Managing Wild Animal Trade Chains to Reduce Zoonotic Disease Risk

TRAFFIC’s Review assesses how supply chain management and traceability tools could be adapted to wild animal trade chains to reduce zoonotic disease risks and illustrates what level of monitoring would be needed for legal wild animal trade to be considered safe and sustainable.

Review: Options for Managing and Tracing Wild Animal Trade Chains to Reduce Zoonotic Risk

Report author(s):
Sam Campbell, Anastasiya Timoshyna, Glenn Sant, Duan Biggs, Alexander Braczkowski, Hernan Caceres-Escobar, Karlina Indraswari, James Compton, and Hubert Cheung

Publication date:
July 2022


This Review reiterates the interim international guidance in response to the COVID pandemic published in April 2021 by the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health, and the United Nations Environment Programme, that trade in wild animals requires risk assessment and effective regulations, including traceability as an important control measure.

The Review’s case studies were prepared by Resilient Conservation at Griffith University’s Centre for Planetary Health and Food Security, in collaboration with TRAFFIC.

Notes on webinar:

Lead author and Wildlife TRAPS Officer, Sam Campbell discussed the findings of this review with a panel of experts, including: 

  • Dr Hernan Caceres-Escobar, post-Doctoral Researcher at Sapienza University of Rome
    A veterinarian with a PhD in Conservation Science, Hernan has also pursued postgraduate studies in business management, economics, and project assessment. Following the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, he worked with Dr Richard Kock of the IUCN Wildlife Health Specialist Group to lead a Situation Analysis On the Roles and Risks of Wildlife in the Emergence of Human Infectious Diseases for the IUCN Species Survival Commission, which was published in February 2022.
    Currently, Hernan is exploring how biodiversity conservation and ecosystem disturbance impact human health, with a goal is to aid decision-makers maximise environmental and socio-economic benefits. The use of transdisciplinary participatory approaches and modelling techniques is fundamental to develop innovative evidence-based interventions and policies.
  • Qudra Kagembe, Project Officer and Wildlife TRAPS focal point for East Africa, TRAFFIC
    Qudra Kagembe provides technical support to different projects including, wildlife trade data collection and analysis, strengthening law enforcement capacity in combating IWT, particularly in the maritime supply chains, airports, and land border points in East Africa.  He is also currently working on Tanzania’s legal game meat supply chains. 
    Before joining TRAFFIC, Qudra worked as a field researcher, largely focusing on bird ecology and habitat fragmentation. Qudra is an expert on bird biology and has a Degree in Wildlife Science and Conservation from the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Qudra is based in Arusha, Tanzania.
  • Karlina Indraswari – University of Queensland
    Karlina Indraswari is originally from Indonesia and is passionate about finding solutions to conservation issues. Karlina’s research focuses on using trans-disciplinary approaches to solve wildlife conservation issues. Karlina acquired her PhD from Queensland University of Technology, where she used a multi-faceted approach to assess the efficacy market-based approach to solve Indonesia’s songbird trade crisis.
    Karlina is currently a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Queensland. After working with TRAFFIC on Options to Manage and Trace Wild Animal Trade Chains, she is now developing a metric to measure bird populations in Australia. On the side, she is also working on a project to understand Indonesia’s perception of the spread of zoonotic disease through its pet bird trade.
  • Dr Taye Teferi - Policy & Partnership Coordinator - Africa, TRAFFIC
    Dr Taye Teferi has over 30 years’ experience in natural resource management and is currently the Africa Policy and Partnerships Manager for TRAFFIC. Dr Teferi has had wide international experience, working closely with local communities, government agencies, development partners, regional bodies, NGOs, and private institutions across Africa, North America, Europe, and Asia, focusing on understanding the particular capabilities, needs and requirements of these stakeholders. He has led the implementation of large regional, multi-stakeholder programmes and has provided leadership and technical advice/expertise in a number of Multi-lateral Environmental Agreement (MEA) negotiations and sustainable development fora.

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About Wildlife TRAPS

The Wildlife TRAPS Project, implemented by TRAFFIC and IUCN with funding support from USAID, is helping to forge cross-sectoral partnerships with government and experts in inter-governmental organisations, NGOs, academia, and the private sector to identify risk mitigation strategies to prevent future zoonotic spillover potential associated with trade in wild animals.

As well as strengthening supply chain management systems and traceability, the Wildlife TRAPS project is implementing social and behavioural change interventions and supporting policy and regulatory reform efforts. The identification of critical control points within wildlife trade supply chains will help target illicit and other high-risk wildlife trade practices that may facilitate the transmission of zoonotic diseases.

About IUCN

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together. For more information visit:


The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is responsible for the majority of overseas development assistance from the United States Government and works to end extreme poverty and promote resilient, democratic societies while advancing security and prosperity for America and the world.