NOTE: Please see instructions here to search inside TRAFFIC's PDFs

Subscribe to news


news, studies, issues and events from the world of wildlife trade.

Also of interest

Wildlife crime is serious - watch the video!


Interested in a Masters in Conservation Leadership at the University of Cambridge? More details...


TRAFFIC is grateful for the financial contribution from The Rufford Foundation towards this website

Useful links
Focus on

Behaviour change l Conservation awareness l Enforcement


Iconic wildlife

Apes l Bears l Deer l Elephants l Leopards l Marine turtles l Pangolins l Reptiles l Rhinos l Sharks & rays l Tigers l others



Timber trade



Fisheries regulation


Medicinal plants

Medicinal and aromatic plants



Wildmeat resources


Pets & fashion

Wild animals used for pets & fashion



Africa l Americas l Asia l Australasia l Europe l Middle East


International Agreements



Publications by species

Reptiles and Amphibians

Reports available as PDFs can be downloaded here. To receive printed copies of these and other reports, please contact or TRAFFIC, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK, stating clearly which report(s) you wish to receive and your postal address

NOTE: there is a charge to cover postage costs for hard copies, and to cover photocopying for out of print reports.


Monitoring lizards: using stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of monitor lizard Varanus spp. skins (PDF, 3 MB) Vicki Crook, Louisa Musing and Stefan Ziegler. (2016). ISBN 978-1-85850-405-6. TRAFFIC, Cambridge, UK.

Trade in Malagasy reptiles and amphibians in Thailand (PDF, 1.1 MB) Matthew Todd. (2011) 30pp. ISBN 9789833393 329. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Wildlife trade from ASEAN to the EU: Issues with the trade in captive-bred reptiles from Indonesia (350 KB) Vincent Nijman & Chris R Shepherd. 2009. 22pp. ISBN 9789833393299. This report examines the trade in  reptiles exported to the EU that are declared as captive-bred and the numbers of reptiles that breeding facilities in Indonesia are actually producing, or have the capacity to produce.

Collection, Trade, and Regulation of Reptiles and Amphibians of the Chihuahuan Desert Ecoregion (1.6 MB) Lee A. Fitzgerald, Charles W. Painter, Adrian Reuter, Craig Hoover. August 2004. 76pp plus appendices. ISBN 0 89164 170 X (ISBN 978 0 89164 170 4). This report obtains and has compiled information on the collection of and trade in reptiles inhabiting the Chihuahuan Desert ecoregion.

Hot Trade in Cool Creatures: A Review of the Live Reptile Trade in the European Union in the 1990s with a Focus on Germany (1.1. MB) Mark Auliya. 2003. 105pp. ISBN 2 9600505 9 2 (ISBN 978 2 9600505 9 2). The objective of this report is to provide an overview for the market of live reptiles in the EU in the 1990s, by compiling data on legal and illegal trade, analysing trends, including supply and demand and other aspects, such as trade routes, main countries of export, species in trade, and prices.

The US Role in the International Live Reptile Trade: Amazon Tree Boas to Zululand Dwarf Chameleons (Summary, 428 KB) Craig Hoover. September 1998. 59pp. This report presents the findings of an analysis of global trade data and a review of the trade in approximately 100 reptile
International Trade in Reptile Skins: A Review and Analysis of the Main Consumer Markets, 1983‑1991 (scanned PDF, 4.5 MB) Martin Jenkins, Steven Broad. August 1994. 68pp. ISBN 1 85850 047 8 (ISBN 978 1 85850 047 8). This report describes and evaluates the international trade in reptile skins. A review of the main taxa in trade is followed by an analysis of the main consumer markets, the problem of illegal trade, and a discussion of the conservation implications and future of the trade.

The Shell Trade in Florida: Status, Trade and Legislation R. Tucker Abbott. October 1980. 85pp.

Escalating Black Spotted Turtle Geoclemys hamiltonii trade in Asia: a study of seizures (PDF, 1.8 MB) by Serene Chng. (2014). TRAFFIC, Petaling Jaya Selangor, Malaysia ISBN: 978-983-3393-38-1. This study documents the illegal international trade of the Black Spotted Turtle, which has escalated in recent years with more than 1960 animals seized in 22 incidents between January 2008 and March 2014.

Trade in Japanese Endemic Reptiles in China and Recommendations for Species Conservation (PDF, 4.5 MB) Kahoru Kanari & Ling Xu. ISBN 978-1-85850-356-1. (2013). TRAFFIC.

The Trade in tortoises and freshwater turtles in Jakarta, Indonesia revisited (PDF, 900 KB) Carrie J. Stengel, Chris R. Shepherd, Olivier S. Caillabet. (2011) 24pp. ISBN 9789833393343. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

An assessment of the marine turtle products trade in Viet Nam (PDF, 460 KB) Daniel Stiles. (2008) 34pp. ISBN 9789833393251. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Status, trade dynamics and management of the Southeast Asian Box Turtle in Indonesia (PDF, 2.4 MB) Sabine Schoppe (2009) Published by TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia ISBN 9789833393213. This study reviews information on the biology and ecology of the Southeast Asian Box Turtle, assess the legislation in place to regulate trade in wildlife especially in freshwater turtles and tortoises, identifies past and current harvest and trade levels, and determines whether the abundance of the species has changed over time.

Science in CITES: The biology and ecology of the Southereast Asian Box Turtle and its uses and trade in Malaysia (PDF, 2.4 MB) Sabine Schoppe (2009) Published by TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia ISBN 9789833393183. The study found records for high export volumes of turtles both before and after a Malaysian export ban was imposed.

Tortoises and freshwater turtles of India (Poster) (PDF, 1.42 MB) (2008) Published by TRAFFIC India

An identification guide to the tortoises and freshwater turtles of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore and Timor Leste (2008). Published by TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. To purchase a copy, please download, print out and fill in this form and post to: TRAFFIC SEA, Unit 9-3A, 3rd Floor, Jalan SS23/11, Taman SEA, 47400 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia or fax to: +603-7882 0171.

Pet freshwater turtle and tortoise trade in Chatuchak Market, Bangkok, Thailand (1.86 MB) Chris R. Shepherd and Vincent Nijman (2008). 16pp. Published by TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia ISBN 9789833393077. English and Thai. The Chatuchak or Weekend Market in Bangkok is an important hub for the sale of freshwater turtles and tortoises, many of which are prohibited from trade. Buyers from other parts of Asia, especially individuals from Japan, Malaysia and Singapore, are known to purchase large numbers of turtles from the dealers in Chatuchak Market for retail in their respective countries. Much of the importing and exporting of freshwater turtles and tortoises to and from the Chatuchak Market is believed to be conducted illegally in contravention of CITES-related laws.

An overview of the regulation of the freshwater turtle and tortoise pet trade in Jakarta, Indonesia (Tinjauan terhadap peraturan perdagangan kura-kura air tawar sebagai satwa peliharaan di Jakarta, Indonesia) (3.8 MB) Chris R. Shepherd, Vincent Nijman. (January 2008). 62pp. ISBN 978 983 3393 08 4. In an attempt to gain a greater insight into the drivers behind wildlife trade and to increase our understanding of how to regulate this trade, this survey provides an overview of the management and control of wildlife harvesting in Indonesia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia report.

Turning the Tide: Exploitation, Trade and Management of Marine Turtles in the Lesser Antilles, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela (5 MB) Executive Summary (300 KB) Amie Bräutigam, Karen L. Eckert. (June 2007). 534pp. ISBN 1 85850 223 3 (ISBN 978 1 85850 223 6). This comprehensive review of exploitation, trade and management of marine turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) highlights findings related to the legal framework for marine turtle management, patterns of domestic exploitation and use and international trade, and a variety of core management issues, including population monitoring, fishery controls and law enforcement. Published by: TRAFFIC International Commissioned by: The CITES Secretariat.

Tourists, Turtles and Trinkets: a look at the trade in marine turtle products in the Dominican Republic and Colombia: A Report from the Field Adrian Reuter, Crawford Allan. (July 2006). 12pp. In March 2006 TRAFFIC investigated the trade in marine turtle products, with a focus on Hawksbill Turtle shell items, in the Dominican Republic and Colombia, which have become popular tourist destinations. Results show that trade and availability of marine turtle items in these Caribbean countries is an issue of concern, and might indicate ongoing illegal take and trade in marine turtles.

The Trade of the Roti Island Snake-necked Turtle Chelodina mccordi Chris R. Shepherd, Bonggi Ibarrondo. (February 2006). 41pp. ISBN 983 3393 04 7 (ISBN 978 983 3393 04 6). The Roti Island Snake-necked Turtle Chelodina mccordi is a small, long-necked turtle, found only in the wetlands of the small island of Roti, in eastern Indonesia. Described as a new species in 1994, international demand for it has intensified to the point where the species has become all but extinct in the wild.

Japan’s Trade in Live Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles as Pets (Summary, 264 KB) Shoko Kameoka, Hisako Kiyono. (March 2005). 43pp (Japanese edition. Executive Summary in English).

The Trade in Marine Turtle Products in Viet Nam (636 KB) (March 2004). 48pp. Five of the world’s seven marine turtle species, the Hawkesbill Eretmochelys imbricate, Green Chelonia mydas, Loggerhead Caretta caretta, Olive Ridley Lepidochelys olivacea and Leatherback Dermochelys coriacea Turtles, are found in the waters of Viet Nam. All five face the threat of extinction. This report illustrates the extent of the illegal trade in marine turtles and marine turtle products throughout Viet Nam. Prepared for: Marine Turtle Conservation & Management Team. Produced by: TRAFFIC Southeast Asia-Indochina.

Demand Driven: The Trade of Indian Star Tortoises Geochelone elegans in Peninsular Malaysia (676 KB) Chris R. Sheperd, Elizabeth A. Burgess, Maple Loo. (July 2004). 11pp. ISBN 983 99246 8 0 (ISBN 978 983 99246 8 8). This report highlights concerns pertaining to inadequacies within Malaysia’s legislation that do not allow for proper management and conservation of the Indian Star Tortoise.

Shelled Out? A Snapshot of Bekko Trade in Selected Locations in Southeast Asia (1 MB) Peter Paul van Dijk, Chris Shepherd. (March 2004). 29pp. The Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata, is listed in Appendix I of CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Therefore, its shell products, known as bekko, are banned from international commercial trade by CITES. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia carried out surveys in two traditionally key countries involved in the bekko trade, Indonesia and Viet Nam, to establish the status of trade and stockpiles of bekko in selected locations.

A CITES Priority: Conservation of Asian Tortoise and Freshwater Turtles TRAFFIC Briefing document (PDF 313KB) (2002) TRAFFIC

Swimming Against the Tide: Recent Surveys of Exploitation, Trade and Management of Marine Turtles in the Northern Caribbean (scanned PDF, 12.9 MB) Elizabeth H. Fleming. (April 2001). 161pp. ISBN 0 89164 161 0 (ISBN 978 0 89164 161 2). This review, which combined desk research and field surveys, was undertaken to gather and synthesize information about harvest of marine turtles, use of and trade in their products, and the effectiveness these activities may be having on marine turtle populations.

Ranching and Breeding of Horsfield Tortoise in Uzbekistan (scanned PDF, 5.4 MB) Stephanie Theile. (October 2000). 41pp. (English edition).

Asian Turtle Trade: Chelonian Research Monographs No. 2 Edited by: Peter Paul van Dijk, Bryan L Stuart, Anders G J Rhodin. (August 2000). 164pp. ISBN 0 96535 403 2 (ISBN 978 0 96535 403 5). Proceedings of a Workshop on Conservation and Trade of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises in Asia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 1 - 4 December 1999. Published by: Chelonian Research Foundation in association with Wldlife Conservation Society, TRAFFIC, WWF, Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Trade and Utilisation in Peninsular Malaysia. Trade Review (Scanned PDF, 2,4 MB) Dionysius S. K. Sharma. (1999). 39pp. ISBN 9 83992 461 3 (ISBN 978 9 83992 461 9).

CITES Identification Guide – Turtles & Tortoises (Chinese edition, PDF, 9.3 MB) (Edited by: Tien-His Chen, Vincent Y. Chen) Guide to the Identification of Turtles and Tortoises Species Controlled under CITES. (1999). 64pp plus indexes. In collaboration with: CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland, TRAFFIC North America, Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Biodiversity Convention Office, Environment Canada.

A WWF India Field guide to freshwater Turtles and Tortoises of India (PDF 932KB) (1999) Fahmeeda Hanfe 27pp Published by: TRAFFIC India and WWF India.

Investigations into Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Trade in VietnamLe Dien Duc, Steven Broad. (1995). 34pp. Published by: NWF/IUCN/WWF Programme for Endangered Species in Asia in collaboration with TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.

Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles: The Trade in Southeast Asia Martin D. Jenkins. (July 1995). 48pp. ISBN 1 85850 070 2 (ISBN 978 1 85850 070 6). In recent years the trade in tortoises and freshwater turtles of Southeast Asia has escalated and changed dramatically to meet international demand. This report documents the change, examining the status, distribution and exploitation of 41 species in seven Southeast Asian countries.

Investigation of Trade in Hawksbill Turtles in Viet Nam (PDF 1.66MB) (1994) TRAFFIC Southeast Asia

Turtle Trade in India: A study of freshwater turtles (Scanned PDF, 2.4 MB) B.C. Choudhury, S. Bhupathy. (October 1993). 50pp.

Imports of and Trade in Sea Turtles Products in France Gwénola Le Serrec. (1987). 18pp. (French edition).

The Japanese sea turtle trade 1970-1986 (scanned PDF, 6.4 MB). Tom Milliken & Hideomi Tokunaga (1987). 176pp. TRAFFIC East Asia (Japan)

The Sea Turtle: An Animal of Divisible Parts, International Trade in Sea Turtle Products (Scanned PDF, 4.5 MB) David Mack, Nicole Duplaix, Sue Wells. (November 1979). 86pp.


CROCODYLIA (Crocodiles)

The Call of the Wild: Captive crocodilian production and the shaping of conservation incentives James MacGregor. (June 2006). 49pp. ISBN 1 85850 220 9 (ISBN 978 1 85850 220 5). TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.12.

CITES Identification Guide – Crocodilians (Chinese edition, PDF, 6.7 MB) Translated by: Joyce Chou, Vincent Y. Chen. (June 1998) (Japanese edition, PDF, 5.3 MB)

Las Re-exportaciones Argentinas de Productos de la Fauna Silvestre de Origen Paraguayo: Comercio Ilegal de Cueros de Caiman yacare (Re-exportation from Argentina of Wild Fauna Products of Paraguayan Origin: Illegal Trade in Caiman yacare Skins). Tomas Waller. 19pp.


Conservation Status and Impacts of Trade on the Oriental Rat Snake Ptyas mucosa in Java, Indonesia (PDF, 1.9 MB). Marc Auliya. (2010). 48pp. Published by TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.


Collection, Trade and Protection of European Herpetofauna. Report no.4 Drs.Th.H.van Koolwijk. 1987. 101pp.