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Reports available as PDFs can be downloaded here. To receive printed copies of these and other reports, please contact or TRAFFIC, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK, stating clearly which report(s) you wish to receive and your postal address

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Overview of the Timber Trade in East and Southern Africa: National Perspectives and Regional Trade Linkages Document (PDF: 2MB) by Kahana Lukumbuzya and Cassian Sianga (February 2017). TRAFFIC and WWF. Cambridge, UK. ISBN no:  978-1-85850-415-5. This report provides an overview of timber tade and makes reccomendations including governments making more multilateral forest agreements.

Timber Island: The Rosewood and Ebony Trade of Madagascar (PDF: 2.3MB) by Cynthia Ratsimbazafy, David J. Newton and Stéphane Ringuet (November 2016). TRAFFIC. Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 978-1-85850-412-4. This report investigates how a combination of political instability, government mismanagement, a lack of forest operation controls and a failure to impose punitive penalties on well-known traffickers contributed to what was effectively zero control over the management of precious timber resources in Madagascar between March 2010 to March 2015.

Also available in French: L’ÎLE AUX BOIS: Commerce de Bois de Rose et de Bois d’Ébène de Madagascar (PDF, 2.3MB) by Cynthia Ratsimbazafy, David J. Newton and Stéphane Ringuet (November 2016). TRAFFIC. Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 978-1-85850-416-2.

BRIEFING PAPER - Synergies of FLEGT and forestry-related initiatives in: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru (PDF, 1.3 MB)

BRIEFING PAPER - Benchmarking studies of: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru (PDF, 1.4 MB)

An analysis of the level of compliance of policies and initatives in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the timber import requirements of the EU and other important destinations (PDF, 1.4 MB). Chen Hin Keong (ed).

Methodological proposal for the Measurement and Evaluation of Forest Governance in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Fanzeres, A.; Ortiz von Halle, B.; Torres, J.; Orozco, J.M.; Mondragón, M.L.; Menton, M.; Bohórquez, N.; Aguirre, N.; Kometer, R. y Ingram, V. TRAFFIC (2014). In Spanish (PDF, 4 MB). List of annexes Brazil – Annex 2, Brazil – Annex 3, Brazil -Annex 4, Colombia Annex 1 y 2, Colombia Annex Matrices. In this publication four case studies of methodological proposals are compiled to measure forest governance in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. These studies were developed during 2013 and 2014.

Tendencias de la Gobernanza Forestal en Colombia, Ecuador y Perú (in Spanish) (PDF, 5 MB) Orozco, J. M. ; Mogrovejo, P. ; Jara, L.F. ; Sánchez, A. ; Buendia, B. ; Dumet, R. y Bohórquez, N. TRAFFIC (2014). This document compiles the following three case studies: Status of Forest Governance in Colombia, Tendencies of Forest Governance in Ecuador and The Timber Market in Peru. These studies were conducted in 2013 and published in 2014.

Forum on Governance, Legality Verification Systems and Competitiveness in the Latin American Forest Sector. Full Proceedings (Spanish with English Summary, PDF, 8.1 MB), Summary in English (PDF, 1.5 MB), Spanish (PDF, 1.5 MB) and Portuguese (PDF, 1.5 MB). Captures key issues emerging from a conference with 140 regional stakeholders, plus public & private sector representatives from 10 Latin America countries and from demand side markets such as the EU and the US.

Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan briefing papers on timber trade in various countries in Latin America: Brazil (PDF, 2.4 MB), Colombia (PDF, 1.5 MB), Ecuador (1.6 MB) and Peru (PDF, 1.6 MB)

Mejorando la Gobernanza Forestal en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú (PDF, 2 MB) TRAFFIC (2014).

Elementos, dados e fatos para análise da Governança Florestal e situação da produção e comércio de madeira legal no Brasil para A. Fanzeres. TRAFFIC (2014). (PDF, 2 MB) En Portugués. Se describe una breve retrospectiva de la gobernanza forestal de Brasil. Trayendo la revisión crítica de la producción y comercialización de madera nativa de la amazonia.

An Analysis of Trade in Five CITES-listed Taxa by S Ferriss. (2014). (PDF, 2 MB) Chatham House and TRAFFIC. Prepared for a workshop on CITES and the EU Trade Regulations at Chatham House in December 2013, this paper analyses trade in five timber-producing taxa listed in the appendices of CITES: Afrormosia - Pericopsis elata, Ramin - Gonystylus. spp., Mahogany - Swietenia macrophylla, Red Cedar - Cedrela odorata, and Rosewoods - Dalbergia spp.

Análise de Sinergias entre a Aplicação das Leis, Governança e o Comércio Forestal e iniciativas afins no Brasil, Colõmbia, Equador y Peru (PDF, 3 MB) por José Miguel Orozco Muñoz & Blady Nhaydú Bohórquez C. O objetivo do presente estudo é desenvolver a análise de sinergias entre a aplicação das leis, a governança e o comércio florestal (componentes do Plano de Ação FLEGT da União Europeia PA-FLEGT) e iniciativas afins, tais como marcos de política nacionais, REDD+, Lei Lacey, Tratados de Livre Comércio e outros no Brasil, Colômbia, Equador e Peru.

Análisis de Sinergias entre la Aplicación de las Leyed, la Gobernanza y el Comercio Forestal e iniciativas afines en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú (PDF, 3 MB) por José Miguel Orozco Muñoz & Blady Nhaydú Bohórquez C. El objetivo del presente estudio es desarrollar el análisis de sinergias entre la aplicación de las leyes, la gobernanza y el comercio forestal (componentes del Plan de Acción FLEGT de la Unión Europea -PA-FLEGT-) e iniciativas afines como marcos de política nacionales, REDD+, Ley Lacey, TLC y otros en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú

Evaluation and scoping of EU timber importers from South America (PDF, 11 MB) by R. Oliver. TRAFFIC (2013). This report contributes to monitoring the impact and effectiveness of European Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT)-related policy measures in South America. In Spanish (PDF, 5.2 MB).

Trade in Dalbergia nigra and the European Union (PDF, 1.8 MB) by V. Taylor, K. Kecse-Nagy and T. Osborn. TRAFFIC (2013). TRAFFIC was requested by the European Commission (EC) to prepare this report to facilitate a greater understanding of the international trade in D. nigra (with particular reference to the EU) and to provide a preliminary assessment of whether EU trade in D. nigra was an issue warranting further attention.

Trading timbers: A comparison of import requirements under CITES, FLEGT and related EU legislation for timber species in trade (PDF, 300 KB) Rosie Cooney, Stephanie von Meibom and Chen Hin Keong. TRAFFIC (2012). This document analyses and compares the requirements of the FLEGT Action Plan, EU Timber Regulation and CITES for timber imported into the EU, with a focus on the requirements of each for ensuring that timber is legally sourced.

Precious Woods background paper 1, Precious Woods - TRAFFIC (PDF 765KB) (April 2012) Anna Jenkins, Neil Bridgland, Rachel Hembry, Ulrich Malessa, James Hewitt, Chen Hin Keong

Catálogo de productos maderables y empresas certificadas en el Ecudor; un apoyo para las compras públicas responsables (PDF 1.86MB) TRAFFIC and Forestry Stewardship Council (2012)

Wood for the Trees: A Review of the Agarwood Trade in Malaysia (PDF, 1.2 MB) Lim Teck Wyn & Nooranie Awang Anak (2010). TRAFFIC.

The Trade and Use of Agarwood (Oudh) in the United Arab Emirates (PDF, 710 KB) Marina Antonopoulou; James Compton; Lisa S. Perry & Razan Al-Mubarak (2010). TRAFFIC.

Global forest & trade network common framework for assessing legality of forestry operations, timber processing and trade. (PDF 570 KB) (2009) TRAFFIC & WWF. National legality frameworks are also available for
Central African Republic, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Malaysia, Republic of Congo, Viet Nam, Cameroon and Indonesia, with more to follow.

Prise en compte de la faune sauvage dans les concessions forestieres d'Afrique Centrale - Rapport de l'atelier de Libreville - 8-10 juin 2010 (PDF, 1 MB). (2010). Nathalie Van Vliet; Stéphane Ringuet; Germain Ngandjui; Eva Mouzong. TRAFFIC Afrique Centrale, Yaoundé, Cameroun.

Review of trade in Merbau from major range States (900 KB). PS Tong, HK Chen, J Hewitt and A Affre A (March 2009). 128pp. ISBN 9789833393176. A report aimed to investigate in detail the international trade in merbau timber and to provide scientific and current data on the population status, harvest management and trade in these species.

Lost in Transit. Export and Import Protocols as Contributors to Discrepancies in International Timber Trade Data (3 MB) by Chen, H.K. TRAFFIC (November 2008). 158pp. ISBN 978 1 858 50239 7. Alignment of the type of information required by Customs in exporting and importing countries and territories would be an obvious measure to use in the interests of closer control of the timber trade. This report focuses on how far from alignment current practice is and provides recommendations for addressing the gap.

Trade and conservation of Taxus in China (2.3 MB) TRAFFIC East Asia. (August 2007). 90pp. (in Chinese)

Trade Measures- Tools to Promote the Sustainable Use of NWFP? An Assessment of Trade Related Instruments influencing the international trade in non-wood forest products and associated management and livlihood strategies (PDF 862KB) (2007) Markus Burgener, Sven Walter

Forestry, Governance and National Development: Lessons Learned from a Logging Boom in Southern Tanzania. An Overview (1.6 MB) (in Chinese, 2.9 MB) Simon.H. Milledge, Ised K. Gelvas, Antje Ahrends. (February 2007). 16pp. ISBN 0 9802542 1 3 (ISBN 978 0 9802542 1 1).

Forestry, Governance and National Development: Lessons Learned from a Logging Boom in Southern Tanzania (4.8 MB, full report) Simon A.H. Milledge, Ised K. Gelvas, Antje Ahrends. (February 2007). 250pp. ISBN 1 85850 224 1 (ISBN 978 1 85850 224 3) First reprint (ISBN 978 1 85850 232 8). This study of contemporary timber trade has provided a revealing example of how governance shortfalls in the forestry sector can ultimately affect the prospects for achieving national economic growth and poverty objectives. Whilst numerous opportunities and benefits of timber trade have been, and continue to be, realized, this report illustrates how poor forestry governance directly undermines two clusters of the 2005 National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP).

Manual de Procedimientos Administrativos para el Aprovechamiento, Transporte y Exportación de la Caoba Swietenia macrophylla en el Perú [Manual on Administrative Procedures for the Exploitation in Transport and Export of Mahogany in Peru] Published by: TRAFFIC South America, WWF-Peru and INRENA. (2006). 76pp (Spanish edition).

Proceedings of the CITES Agarwood experts group meeting, Malaysia, 14–17 November 2006 (550 KB). 65 pp. Edited by TRAFFIC Southeast Asia

The Role of CITES in Combating Illegal Logging – Current and Potential (935 KB) Chen Hin Keong (July 2006). 47pp. ISBN 1 85850 221 7 (ISBN 978 1 85850 221 2). TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.13

Bridging the Gap: Linking timber trade with infrastructural development in Southern Tanzania – Baseline data before completion of Mkapa Bridge (2.4 MB) Simon A.H. Milledge, Bariki K. Kaale. (2005). 119pp. ISBN 0 95840 259 0 (ISBN 978 0 95840 259 0). This study has documented valuable baseline information on timber trade dynamics from Miombo woodlands and coastal forests in southern Tanzania before completion of an important development project.

CITES Identification Guide – Tropical Woods (Chinese edition, PDF, 3.9 MB) Yvan Lafleur, TRAFFIC East Asia -Taipei. (2005). 43pp (Chinese edition) Project by: Environment Canada, TRAFFIC East Asia.

A Malaysian Assessment of the World List of Threatened Trees (1.7 MB) Chen Hin Keong. (August 2004). 48pp. Available online only.

Framing the Picture: An Assessment of Ramin Trade in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore (2.8 MB) Lim Teck Wyn, Tonny Soehartono, Chen Hin Keong. (August 2004). 129pp. This report evaluates the effectiveness of current implementation measures established for CITES Appendix III trade controls pertaining to Ramin Gonystylus spp. in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore since August 2001. Full report:

Looking Under the Veneer. Implementation Manual on EU Timber Trade Control: Focus on CITES Listed Trees (1.8 MB) Alexandre Affre, Wolfgang Kathe, Caroline Raymakers. (March 2004). 71pp The European Union (EU) is an important destination and transit market for timber shipments from all over the world. These timber imports and re-exports involve many of the trees listed on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The present manual is addressed to authorities in charge of the implementation and enforcement in EU Member States of CITES timber listings. Document produced under a Service Contract with the European Commission, Brussels.

In Harmony with CITES? An analysis of the compatibility between current forestry management provisions and the effective implementation of CITES listing for timber species in Malaysia (280 KB) Chen Hin Keong, Balu Perumal. (2002). 40pp. ISBN 983 99246 4 8 (ISBN 978 983 99246 4 0). This report focuses on Malaysia as a case study to review the challenges to effective implementation of a CITES timber listing and recommend approaches to overcome the constraints, both perceived and actual, that were found.

CITES Appendix III Implementation for Big-leafed Mahogany Swietenia macrophylla (652 KB) (May 2002). 52pp. ISBN 1 85850 192 X (ISBN 978 1 85850 192 5). Prepared by: TRAFFIC International. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.1

 A CITES Priority: Big-leaf Mahogany and the Twelfth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES, Santiago, Chile 2002 TRAFFIC and WWF Briefing document (PDF 775KB) TRAFFIC, WWF

A CITES Priority: Timber and the Twelfth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES, Santiago, Chille 2002- IUCN and TRAFFIC Briefing Document (PDF 764KB) IUCN and TRAFFIC

The Final Frontier: Towards Sustainable Management of Papua New Guinea's Agarwood Resource (664 KB) Frank Zich, James Compton (2001). 11pp. Published by: TRAFFIC Oceania in conjunction with WWF South Pacific Programme.

Mahogany Matters: The U.S. Market for Big-Leafed Mahogany And Its Implications For the Conservation of the Species (780 KB) Christopher S Robbins (October 2000). 58pp. This report is intended to inform American stakeholders of the scope and scale of U.S. demand for big-leafed mahogany, the conservation implications of such demand, and various options for promoting and improving the species’ conservation.

Heart of the Matter: Agarwood Use and Trade and CITES Implementation for Aquilaria malaccensis (524 KB) Angela Barden, Noorainie Awang Anak, Teresa Mulliken, Michael Song. (August 2000). 52pp. ISBN 1 85850 177 6 (ISBN 978 1 85850 177 2).

A Preliminary Assessment of Malawi's Woodcarving Industry Nina T. Marshall, David Mulolani, Louisa Sangalakula. (June 2000).

El Apéndice III de CITES y el comercio de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla) Ximena Buitrón, Teresa Mulliken. (June 1997). 24pp. (Spanish edition) CITES 1997 Series.
CITES Appendix III and the Trade in Big-Leafed Mahogany (Summary & conclusion, English & Spanish, 80 KB) (Scanned full report in English, 2.3 MB) Ximena Buitrón, Teresa Mulliken. (June 1997). 24pp. In late 1995, Big-Leafed Mahogany was listed in Appendix III of CITES, thereby requiring all shipments of timber from the species in Central and South America to be accompanied by documents verifying its origin. The report, which analyses the implementation of Appendix III listing during 1996, shows that countries have taken important steps to implement the listing, but some trade in Big-Leafed Mahogany continues without appropriate documentation.

CITES Appendix and the Trade in Big-Leafed Mahogany (PDF 1.92MB) Ximena Buitron and Teresa Mulliken

CITES and Trees. The Facts and the Fiction (Scanned PDF, 1.6 MB) Debra Callister, Steven Broad. (1994). Prepared on behalf of WWF UK Fighting for Nature.

Hard times for hardwood: Indigenous timber and the timber trade in Kenya (Scanned PDF, 2.9 MB) Nina T. Marshall, Martin Jenkins (August 1994). 53pp. ISBN 1 85850 048 6 (ISBN 978 1 85850 048 5). This report documents the extent of the Kenyan trade in hardwoods and suggests solutions of international relevance in recommending the identification of alternative timber sources and development of sustainable supplies. Species in Danger report.

Trade in Agarwood (Scanned PDF, 1.7 MB) Kalyan Chakrabarty, Ashok Kumar, Vivek Menon. (August 1994). 51pp.

Illegal Tropical Timber Trade: Asia Pacific Debra J. Callister (October 1992). 83pp. ISBN 0 94761388 9 (ISBN 978 0 94761388 4). Preliminary findings on illegal forestry practices that have resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in foreign exchange, uncollected forestry taxes and loss of forest resources.