NOTE: Please see instructions here to search inside TRAFFIC's PDFs

Subscribe to news


news, studies, issues and events from the world of wildlife trade.

Also of interest

Wildlife crime is serious - watch the video!


Interested in a Masters in Conservation Leadership at the University of Cambridge? More details...


TRAFFIC is grateful for the financial contribution from The Rufford Foundation towards this website

Useful links
Focus on

Behaviour change l Conservation awareness l Enforcement


Iconic wildlife

Apes l Bears l Deer l Elephants l Leopards l Marine turtles l Pangolins l Reptiles l Rhinos l Sharks & rays l Tigers l others



Timber trade



Fisheries regulation



Wildmeat resources


Medicinal plants

Medicinal and aromatic plants


Pets & fashion

Wild animals used for pets & fashion



Africa l Americas l Asia l Australasia l Europe l Middle East


International Agreements




Publications Publications by species


See also Fisheries in Publications by topic

Reports available as PDFs can be downloaded here. To receive printed copies of these and other reports, please contact or TRAFFIC, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK, stating clearly which report(s) you wish to receive and your postal address

NOTE: there is a charge to cover postage costs for hard copies, and to cover photocopying for out of print reports.


CHONDRICHTHYTES (Sharks, Rays etc)

The Shark and Ray Trade in Singapore (PDF:3MB) by Boon Pei Ya (May 2017) TRAFFIC.Selangor, Malaysia. Report by TRAFFIC and WWF reveals Singapore is the world’s second largest shark fin trader by value after Hong Kong, and calls on Singapore to improve transparency in the global shark fin trade through more robust monitoring.

Shark fin and mobulid ray gill plate trade in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan (PDF: 2MB) by Joyce Wu (June 2016). TRAFFIC.Cambridge, UK. This report finds the trade in these products is highly dynamic.

CITES Non-detriment Findings Guidance for Shark Species (PDF, 2 MB) by V. Mundy-Taylor, V. Crook, S. Foster, S. Fowler, G. Sant and J. Rice. (2014). Report prepared for the Germany Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt für Naturschutz, BfN).

Development of a Rapid Management-Risk Assessment Method for Fish Species through its Application to Sharks: Framework and Results by M Lack, G Sant, M Burgener and N Okes. (2014). Report to the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Defra Contract No. MB0123. Available here.

Into the deep: Implementing CITES measures for commercially-valuable sharks and manta rays (PDF, 1.8 MB). Victoria Mundy-Taylor & Vicki Crook. (2013). TRAFFIC. This Report aims to compile and collate readily available information on: (i) the main Parties likely to be affected by the listings of shark species adopted at CITES CoP16 (Bangkok, Thailand in March 2013); (ii) international, regional and domestic regulations and measures that may be mutually supportive of, and complementary to, the listings; (iii) the main challenges expected in relation to implementation of the listings; and (iv) any existing or planned capacity building initiatives and tools available to support the listings, in addition to potential gaps and needs.

An overview of shark utilisation in the Coral Triangle region (PDF, 510 KB). Glenn Sant and Mary Lack. TRAFFIC & WWF. An overview of shark catch and trade is focused on the six Coral Triangle countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Philippines, Solomon Islands and Timor Leste) and the neighbouring countries of Viet Nam and Fiji.  Chinese version (PDF, 2.7 MB)

Proceedings of the First Pacific Shark Workshop, December 13- 15, 2011, Vancouver, Canada (PDF, 1.15 MB) by Gordon A. McFarlane, Ursula M. Arndt & Ernest W.T. Cooper (eds). TRAFFIC and WWF-Canada. Vancouver.

The Future of Sharks: A Review of Action and Inaction (PDF, 1.1 MB) by M. Lack and Sant G. (2011). TRAFFIC International and the Pew Environment Group. This analysis uses fisheries information provided to the UN FAO to identify the top 20 shark-catching countries and other entities, and then assesses whether they have taken the management and conservation measures they agreed to in 2001.

Trends in Global Shark Catch and Recent Developments in Management (PDF, 800 KB) Mary Lack and Glenn Sant (May 2009). 29pp. Briefing paper presented at the World Oceans Conference, Manado, Indonesia providing an analysis of trends in shark catch.

Illegal, unreported and unregulated shark catch: A review of current knowledge and action (1 MB) Mary Lack and Glenn Sant (November 2008). 57pp. In recent years there has been growing international concern for the conservation status of sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras. The lucrative market, particularly for shark fin, has resulted in increased targeting of sharks and, in some cases this is illegal, unreported or unregulated (IUU) fishing. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts and TRAFFIC, Canberra.

Confronting Shark Conservation Head On! (528 KB) M. Lack, G. Sant (December 2006). 29pp. ISBN 1 85850 225 X (ISBN 978 1 85850 225 0). This paper identifies the main players in the catch and trade of shark products, examines the progress of these States/entities and RFMOs in implementing the International Plan of Action IPOA-Sharks and makes recommendations for the adoption of best practice approaches to shark conservation and management.

Conservation of Spiny Dogfish Squalus acanthias: A Role for CITES? (628 KB) Mary Lack. (November 2006). 34pp. ISBN 1 85850 226 8 (ISBN 978 1 85850 226 7). This report examines the characteristics of the fisheries for and trade in Spiny Dogfish and, based on those characteristics, assesses the issues surrounding the implementation of an Appendix II listing and the benefits a listing may provide to the conservation of the species.

World shark catch, production & trade 1990 - 2003 (372 KB) M. Lack, G. Sant. (April 2006). 29pp. This report examines trends in the catch, production and trade of sharks and shark products. In the main the analysis focuses on the period between 1990 and 2003. The analysis is based on data obtained from the FAO’s Fishstat Plus databases; Cature production 1950-2003; and Commodities Production and Trade 1976- 2003 (FAO Fisheries Department, 2000) Published by: TRAFFIC Oceania. Commissioned by: Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage.

Shark Product Trade in Hong Kong and Mainland China and Implementation of the CITES Shark Listings (2.2 MB) S. Clarke. (September 2004). 53pp. ISBN 962 86197 6 4 (ISBN 978 962 86197 6 4). This report examines regulatory and monitoring systems in mainland China and Hong Kong for implementing the recent listing of three shark species in Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

A CITES Priority: Sharks and the Twelfth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES, Santiago, Chile 2002- IUCN and TRAFFIC Briefing Document (PDF 961KB) (2002) IUCN and TRAFFIC

Management and Trade of Whale Sharks in Taiwan (512 KB) Vincent Y. Chen, Marcus J. Phipps. (September 2002). 25pp. ISBN 957986282 6 (ISBN 978 957986282 0). Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia - Taipei.

Gentle Giants of the Sea: India's Whale Shark Fishery (scanned PDF, 3.6 MB) Fahmeeda Hanfee. (January 2001). 38pp. Report on trade in Whale Shark off the Gujarat coast. Published by: TRAFFIC India and WWF-India

Indagine Sul Commercio Degli Elasmobranchi: La Situazione in Italia Alberto Laurenti, Massimiliano Rocco. (April 1998). 61pp. (Italian edition).

Shark Fisheries and Trade in the Americas, Volume 1: North America (scanned PDF, 10 MB) Debra A. Rose. (March 1998). 143pp.

Managing Shark Fisheries: Opportunities for International Conservation (scanned PDF, 6.7 MB) Michael L. Weber, Sonja V. Fordham. (March 1997). 61pp. ISBN 1 85850 115 6 (ISBN 978 1 85850 115 4). This report, a joint project of the Center for Marine Conservation and TRAFFIC International, regarding existing international agreements that may promote the conservation of sharks. The report analyses several existing international fisheries regimes, and identifies gaps in the conservation of sharks. Gaps are of two general types - geographical and functional gaps. A comparison of the range of key species of sharks with the jurisdiction of existing fisheries management regimes reveals large gaps in some areas.

The Trade in Sharks and Shark Products in the Western Indian and Southeast Atlantic Oceans. Trade Review (PDF, 7.2 MB) Edited by: Nina T. Marshall, Rob Barnett. (1997). 132pp. ISBN 1 85850 126 1 (ISBN 978 1 85850 126 0). Published by: TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa – Kenya.

Shark Fisheries and Trade in Europe (Executive summary PDF, 196 KB) (scanned full report PDF, 4.5 MB) Elizabeth H. Fleming, Philippe A. Papageorgiou. (1997). 78pp. ISBN 9 07524 303 0 (ISBN 978 9 07524 303 1).

Shark Fisheries and Trade in Taiwan (scanned PDF, 3 MB) George C.T. Chen, Kwang-Ming Liu, Shoou-Jean Juong, Marcus Phipps. (July 1997). 57pp.

Trade in Sharks and Shark Products in India: A preliminary survey
(scanned PDF, 4 MB) Fahmeeda Hanfee. (May 1997). 50pp.

The World Trade in Sharks: A Compendium of TRAFFIC's Regional Studies Volume I 1996 1-456pp.

The World Trade in Sharks: A Compendium of TRAFFIC's Regional Studies Volume II 1996 457-945pp.

Shark Fisheries and the Trade in Sharks and Shark Products of Southeast Asia (scanned PDF, 4.5 MB) Edited by: Chen Hin Keong. (October 1996). 129pp.

The Oceania Region's Harvest, Trade and Management of Sharks and other Cartilaginous Fish: An Overview (scanned PDF, 6.5 MB) Edited by: Glenn Sant, Elizabeth Hayes. (December 1996). 70pp. ISBN 0 95870 080 X (ISBN 978 0 95870 080 1).

An Overview of World Trade in Sharks and Other Cartilaginous Fishes (Scanned PDF, 5.7 MB) Debra A. Rose (December 1996). 106pp. ISBN 1 85850 114 8 (ISBN 978 1 85850 114 7). This report presents an overview of the findings of regional TRAFFIC studies in Europe, India, East and southern Africa, Southeast Asia, East Asia, Oceania and North and South America. It highlights the fisheries, shark products in trade, and the processing, preparation and use of these products in domestic and international markets. It also discusses the management and conservation implications of this trade.




Trade in Sturgeon Caviar in Bulgaria and Romania - overview of reported trade in caviar, 1998-2008 by K. Kecse-Nagy (2011). A TRAFFIC report for WWF Austria, Budapest, Hungary.

Illegal caviar trade in Bulgaria and Romania - Results of a market survey on trade in caviar from sturgeons (Acipenseridae) (PDF, 1.5 MB) by J. Jarle (2013). WWF Austria & TRAFFIC, Vienna, Austria.

TRAFFIC Factsheets on Universal caviar labelling requirements (October 2009) in English (240 KB), French (240 KB) and German (240 KB) and on Black gold: The caviar trade in western Europe (October 2009) in English (140 KB), French (140 KB) and German (140 KB)

Caviar Report to the European Commission Part I. Engler, M & Knapp, A. (2008). Briefing On the Evolution of the Caviar Trade and Range State Implementation of Resolution Conf. 12.7 (Rev. Cop 14) . A TRAFFIC Europe Report for the European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. Part II. UNEP-WCMC (2008). Analysis of EC Trade in Caviar by Species and Tracking of Caviar Permits within the UNEP-WCMC Caviar Database. A Report to the European Commission. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.

Caviar Report to the European Commission, Parts I and II (PDF 2.75MB) Engler, M and Knapp A, TRAFFIC, UNEP-WCMC (2008)

Sturgeons and CoP14 (English) (290 KB) TRAFFIC Briefing paper for CITES CoP14 (June 2007)

Sturgeons and CoP14 (Russian) (520 KB) TRAFFIC Briefing paper for CITES CoP14 (June 2007)

Siberia's black gold: Harvest and trade in Amur River sturgeons in the Russian Federation (501 KB) by Alexey Vaisman and Pavel Fomenko. (2006). ISBN 978 2 930490 05 2. Published by TRAFFIC Europe. A study of the population status of Kaluga and Amur Sturgeons, evaluating the legal and illegal harvest of these species and assessing efforts to prevent illegal sturgeon fishing in the Amur River basin.

Proceedings of the International Sturgeon Enforcement Workshop to Combat Illegal Trade in Caviar (6.4 MB) A. Knapp, C. Kitschke, S. von Meibom. (2006). 137pp plus Annex. Workshop, 27-29 June 2006, Brussels, Belgium. Prepared by: TRAFFIC Europe for the European Commission.

Universal caviar labelling requirements (195 KB) (2006) 4pp. TRAFFIC Factsheet

Black gold: The caviar trade in western Europe (125 KB) (2006). 2pp. TRAFFIC Factsheet

Caviar and Conservation: Status, Management, and Trade of North American Sturgeon and Paddlefish (1.5 MB) Douglas F. Williamson. (May 2003). 240pp. If the Caspian Sea fisheries continue to decline and industry attention shifts to North America as an alternative, what might the future hold for U.S. and Canadian populations of sturgeon and paddlefish? This report addresses several aspects of that question, focusing on the preparedness of U.S. and Canadian management bodies and current trends in legal and illegal trade.

Sturgeon Catch and Trade in the Russian part of the Caspian Sea (scanned PDF, 1.5 MB) Alexey Vaisman. (December 1997). 21pp. (English edition). Published by: TRAFFIC Europe – Russia.

Sturgeons of the Caspian Sea and the International Trade in Caviar (scanned PDF, 6.3 MB) Compiled by: T. De Meulenaer, C. Raymakers. (October 1996). 71pp. ISBN 1 85850 113 X (ISBN 978 1 85850 113 0). This report presents the findings from investigations of sturgeon fisheries, and information from caviar importers in consuming countries, sturgeon specialists and fisheries agencies. The exploitation of Caspian sturgeons is assessed, as is Caspian caviar production, its regulation or lack thereof, and its impact upon the number of Sturgeons remaining. International trade is also analysed. Species in Danger series.

Sturgeon Catch and Trade in the Russian Part of the Caspian Sea (PDF 1.92 MB) (1997) Alexey Vaisman


PERCIFORMES (Wrasse, tunas, toothfishes etc)

Continuing CCAMLR's fight against IUU fishing for toothfish (1.5 MB) Mary Lack (November 2008). 50pp. Despite the introduction of a range of monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) measures, most notably the introduction of a Catch Documentation Scheme (CDS) for Dissostichus spp., IUU catch remains a concern. WWF Australia and TRAFFIC International.

With an Eye to the Future: Addressing failures in the global management of Bigeye Tuna (1.6 MB) Mary Lack. (November 2007). 61pp. The best scientific advice available indicates that the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) stock of Bigeye Tuna is overfished, that overfishing is occurring and that all stocks are, at a minimum, fully exploited. There is no scope to increase catch of Bigeye Tuna without putting the stocks at risk. The analysis in this report has found that management of Bigeye Tuna has been far from swift and effective to date. Published by: TRAFFIC International & WWF Australia.

Western Pacific Workshop on Policy, Enforcement and Sustainable Trade for the CITES Appendix II – listed Humphead (Napoleon) Wrasse, Cheilinus undulates (4 MB) Chu C., C. Kirkpatrick, B. Kwan and Y. Sadovy. (2006). 48pp. 5 – 7 June 2006, Hong Kong. Published by: WWF Hong Kong, Agriculture, Fisheries & Conservation Department Hong Kong SAR, IUCN and TRAFFIC.

The Use of Trade-Related Measures in the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT) (64 KB) Glenn Sant, Mary Lack. (December 2006). 9pp. Presented to the meeting of the CCSBT Compliance Committee in Miyazaki, Japan. Oct 2006

Uncharted Waters: Implementation Issues and Potential Benefits of Listing Toothfish in Appendix II of CITES (3 MB) Anna Willock. (April 2002). 36pp. ISBN 1 85850 191 1 (ISBN 978 1 85850 191 8). Published by: TRAFFIC International, TRAFFIC Oceania.

A CITES priority: Patagonian Toothfish and Antarctic Toothfish at the Twelfth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES, Santiago, Chile 2002- TRAFFIC and WWF Brieifing Document (1.84MB) (2002) TRAFFIC and WWF

Patagonian Toothfish: Are Conservation and Trade Measures Working? (552 KB) M. Lack, G. Sant. (2001). 18pp. Offprint from TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol.19, No.1

Antarctic Toothfish: An analysis of management, catch and trade (536 KB) M. Lack. (October 2001). 27 pp.

Fishing for Solutions: Can the Live Trade in Wild Groupers and Wrasses from Southeast Asia be Managed. Trade Review (scanned PDF, 2 MB) Nokome Bentley. (1999). 100pp. ISBN 9 83992 463 X (ISBN 978 9 83992 463 3). This report aims to describe the trends, patterns and diversity of the live food reef fish industry in Southeast Asia. This analysis is then used to identify appropriate management interventions at various points in the trade to ensure the sustainability of the fishery.

Slipping the Net: Spain’s Compliance with ICCAT Recommendations for Swordfish and Bluefin Tuna (356 KB) Caroline Raymakers, Jacqui Lynham. (November 1999). 58pp. ISBN 1 85850 170 9 (ISBN 978 1 85850 170 3). This report presents the findings from investigations of Swordfish and Northern Bluefin Tuna fisheries carried out on Spanish landing sites in Mediterranean and Atlantic. It also points out the implementation and enforcement gaps remaining in ICCAT and EU conservation and fishing regulations, and recommends needed actions.

The Listing of Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) on Appendix II of CITES. What would it actually mean? (PDF 8.54MB) (1998) Glenn Sant

A Review of the Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery: Implications for Ecologically Sustainable Management (Executive summary, 164 KB) Elizabeth E. Hayes. (July 1997). 34pp. ISBN 0 95870 082 6 (ISBN 978 0 95870 082 5)

Bluefin Tuna. An Examination of the International Trade with an Emphasis on the Japanese Market (scanned PDF, 3.6 MB) Andrea L. Gaski October. (1993). 71pp. ISBN 1 85850 016 8 (ISBN 978 1 85850 016 4). An analysis of the data on catch figures for bluefin tuna and an examination of the trade in this fish for international markets.


OTHER FISH (Cod, Orange Roughy, Salmon etc)

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Pacific salmon fishing at Kamchatka (3.4 MB) N. A. Dronova and V. A. Spiridonov. (January 2009). 51pp.ISBN 978 5 87317 522 2. An analysis of available information on various types of poaching and the scale of illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing, together with recommendations towards reducing the illegal catch. Published by WWF Russia / TRAFFIC Europe.

Imports of Indonesian Marine Products into the European Union 1990-1995 (15.36MB) (2008) Caroline Raymakers

Trading Tails: Linkages Between Russian Salmon Fisheries and East Asian Markets (1.8 MB) Shelley Clarke. (November 2007). 120pp. ISBN 978 1 85850 230 4. This study is a component of a larger project to conserve Russian salmon being conducted by WWF, the global environmental conservation organization, under a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This study’s main technical objective is to describe in detail the trade of Russian salmon through East Asian markets. The overarching aim is to identify means of encouraging demand for legally sourced products and discouraging IUU fishing in the Russian Federation. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia.

The Great Salmon Run: Competition Between Wild and Farmed Salmon Gunnar Knapp, Cathy A. Roheim, James L. Anderson. (January 2007). 301pp. ISBN 0 89164 175 0 (ISBN 978 0 89164 175 9). This report examines economic and policy issues related to wild and farmed salmon in North America. These issues have received a great deal of attention in recent years, reflecting the environmental, economic and cultural importance of salmon to Americans – and the fact that salmon issues span many important policy debates ranging from environmental protection to trade policy. Executive summary (1.5 MB). For full report, please contact the TRAFFIC North America office.

Menhaden: Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) (1 MB) (December 2004).

Managing Risk and Uncertainty in Deep-Sea Fisheries: Lessons from Orange Roughy (2 MB) M. Lack, K.Short, A. Willock. (2003). 73 pp. ISBN 1 87594 156 8 (ISBN 978 1 87594 156 8).

Monkfish: Lophius americanus (2.8 MB) (November 2003).

Study on the Social and Economic Aspects of Illegal Fishing in the Caspian Sea (PDF 1.24MB) (2002) Caroline Raymakers

Marine Fish and the Twelfth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES, Santiago, Chile 2002- IUCN, WWF and TRAFFIC briefing document (PDF 913KB) (2002) IUCN, WWF and TRAFFIC

La Pesca y el Comercio de Bacalao de Profundidad Dissostichus eleginoides en América del sur: una Perspectiva Regional (Fisheries Activities and Trade of Patagonian Toothfish in South America: A Regional Perspective) (English summary & full Spanish report, 2.2 MB) Edited by: Ana Sancho Andrade, Bernardo Ortiz-von Halle, Nicolas Cuvi. (December 2002). 178pp. ISBN 9978 42 721 X (ISBN 978 9978 42 721 7).

The Hong Kong Trade in Live Reef Fish for Food (Executive summary, 124 KB) Patrick P.F. Lau Rob Parry-Jones begin_of_the_skype_highlighting     end_of_the_skype_highlighting. (June 1999). 65pp.

Ornamental Fish Trade in the Netherlands (4.27MB) (1995) Tonnie Woeltjes

Annotated List of Ornamental Fish Species to be Found in Trade in the Netherlands 1992-1994. Tonnie Woeltjes.

Fiji's Non-Detriment Finding Methodology for Extraction of and Trade in Marine Aquarium Species: An Adaptive Management Strategy (PDF 3.3MB) TRAFFIC Oceania South Pacific Programme and Department of Environment




SYNGNATHIFORMES (Pipefishes, seahorses)

A Guide to the identification of seahorses (PDF, 4 MB) Sara A. Lourie, Sarah J. Foster, Ernest W.T. Cooper, Amanda C.J. Vincent. (March 2004). 114pp. ISBN 0 89164 169 6 (ISBN 978 0 89164 169 8). Published by: Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America. (Chinese edition, PDF, 8.4 MB)

A CITES Priority: Seahorses and the Twelfth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES, Santiago, Chile 2002- TRAFFIC and Project Seahorse Briefing Document (PDF 943KB) (2002) TRAFFIC and Project Seahorse

The international trade in seahorses (Scanned PDF, 10.9 MB) Amanda C.J. Vincent. (June 1996). 160pp. ISBN 1 85850 098 2 (ISBN 978 1 85850 098 0). The global trade in seahorses involves more than 20 million seahorses and 32 countries and territories each year. This report provides an overview of the trade, with an emphasis on China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam. It presents information on fishing methods, trade routes, volumes and values of the seahorses in trade, the key players and the issues of concern.


SUMMARY The International Trade in Seahorses (PDF1.86MB) (1996) Amanda CJ Vincent


Eel market dynamics: An analysis of Anguilla production, trade and consumption in East Asia (PDF, 3 MB) (2015). By Hiromi Shiraishi & Vicki Crook. TRAFFIC. Tokyo, Japan.

Trade in Anguilla species, with a focus on recent trade in European Eel A. anguilla (PDF, 700 KB) Vicki Crook. (2010). 56pp. A TRAFFIC Report prepared for the European Commission.

Eels: Their Harvest and Trade in Europe and Asia (1.6 MB) Stephane Ringuet, Fumihito Muto, Caroline Raymakers. (2003). 73pp. (English and Japanese) First published in the TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol.19, no.2, November 2002. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia – Japan.