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Reports available as PDFs can be downloaded here. To receive printed copies of these and other reports, please contact or TRAFFIC, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK, stating clearly which report(s) you wish to receive and your postal address

NOTE: there is a charge to cover postage costs for hard copies, and to cover photocopying for out of print reports.

TRADITIONAL AND WILD: Revitalizing traditions of sustainable wild plant harvesting in Central Europe  (PDF, 2 MB).   (2014). Compiled by: Kristina Rodina, Anastasiya Timoshyna, Andreja Smolej, Darijan Krpan, Elena Zupanc, Éva Németh, Gabriela Ruzickova, GergÅ‘ Gáspár, József Szántai, Malgorzta Draganik, Péter Radácsi, Stanislav Novák, Szilárd Szegedi.  Published by TRAFFIC and WWF Hungary. Also available in Czech (PDF, 1.1 MB), Hungarian (PDF, 1.1 MB), Polish (PDF, 1.1 MB) & Slovenian (PDF, 1.1 MB).

Wild for a Cure: Groundtruthing a Standard for Sustainable Management of Wild Plants in the Field by W Kathe, B Pätzold, D Leaman, A Timoshyna, D Newton, E Khou, G Kinhal, I B Sapkota, M K S Pasha, N Ndam, R Melisch, S Bundalo, S Honnef, T Osborn, X Buitrón, and X Liu. (2010). TRAFFIC International. This report presents a description of the project “Saving Plants that Save Lives and Livelihoods”, implemented by TRAFFIC and its partners WWF, IUCN and others, which addresses a growing demand from industry, governments, certification bodies, resource managers and donor agencies for specific guidance on sustainable wild plant collection practices.

Biodiversity for Food and Medicine (PDF, 1.7 MB). Biodiversity Indicators Partnership, indicator factsheet 4.5.2.

Review of the Status, Harvest, Trade and Management of Seven Asian CITES-listed Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Species by Teresa Mulliken and Petra Crofton (1.7 MB) (December 2008). 142pp. Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN)

Biodiversity for Food and Medicine
(English (May 2011 update)French, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Russian) (PDF, 300 KB). Biodiversity Indicators Partnership factsheet

An overview of the use of plants and animals in traditional medicine systems in Viet Nam (PDF, 1.2 MB) compiled by Nguyen Dao Ngoc Van and Nguyen Tap. (2008) 92pp. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Greater Mekong Programme, Ha Noi, Viet Nam. A study utilising formal and informal interviews, casual observations and questionnaires into the use of flora and fauna in traditional medicine in Viet Nam.

An overview of the use and trade of plants and animals in traditional medicine systems in Cambodia (PDF, 4.7 MB) David Ashwell and Naomi Walston. (2008) 108pp. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Greater Mekong Programme, Ha Noi, Viet Nam. This comprises two reports. The first examines the use of wildlife and plants in Traditional Khmer Medicine (TKM), whilst the second focuses entirely on the medicinal plant trade in Cambodia.

Proceedings of the CITES Agarwood experts group meeting, Malaysia, 14–17 November 2006 (550 KB). 65 pp. Edited by TRAFFIC Southeast Asia

A Review of the Trade in Aloe ferox, with a focus on the role of the European Union (212 KB) Amélie Knapp. (August 2006). 28pp. ISBN 296005 055 X (ISBN 978 296005 055 4). The aim of this study is to describe and quantify the international trade in A. ferox since 1994, with a particular focus on the role of the European Union (EU). Trade data analysis carried out in this study aims to support the efforts of the relevant authorities in EU Member States in assessing their current importing and re-exporting practices in the EU.

Conservation and Sustainable Use of China's Medicinal Species Edited by: Xu Hongfa, Jiang Zhigang. (2004). 179pp. (Chinese edition).

Traditional Asian medicine identification guide for law enforcers: version II (PDF, 5.5 MB) by Stephanie Pendry, Crawford Allen, Joyce Wu and Grant Cameron. (2004) 322pp. Her Majesty's Customs and Excise, London and TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK. A guide to assist enforcers to determine which medicines and ingredients are legal or illegal.

Certifying Certification: Can Certification Secure a Sustainable Future for Medicinal Plants, Harvesters and Consumers in India? (3.1 MB) Pushp Jain. (August 2004). 28pp. ISBN 1 85850 206 3 (ISBN 978 1 85850 206 9). TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.9.

A Tale of Two Cities: A Comparative Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Markets in San Francisco and New York City (424 KB) Leigh Henry. (May 2004). 21pp. This report focuses on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) examining the availability of parts and products derived from rhino, tigers, leopards, musk deer, and bears, within the two largest Chinatowns in the USA – those in San Francisco and New York City.

Chinese Medicinal Wildlife Resources Conservation and Sustainable Use Edited by: Xu Hongfa, TRAFFIC East Asia & Jiang Zhigang, Chinese Academy of Sciences. (October 2003). 179pp. Published by: East China Normal University Publishing House.

A Question of Attitude: South Korea’s Traditional Medicine Practitioners and Wildlife Conservation (990 KB) Sue Kang, Marcus J. Phipps. (June 2003). 58pp. ISBN 9 62861975 6 (ISBN 978 9 62861975 7)

Tagungsband - Proceedings: Medizin und Artenschutz – Herausforderung für Mensch und Natur im neuen Jahrtausend (Medicinal Utilisation of Wild Species - Challenge for Man and Nature in the New Millenium). (scanned PDF, 9.3 MB) Edited by: Susanne Honnef Roland Melisch. (2001). 107pp. (Bilingual German / English.) Symposium, EXPO 2000, Hannover, 13th October 2000. Published by: TRAFFIC Europe - Germany.

Plantas Medicinales de Brasil: Aspectos Generales Sobre Legislación y Comercio Suelma Ribeiro Silva, Ximena Buitrón, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira, Marcus Vinícius, M. Martins. (December 2001). 44pp plus annexes. ISBN 9 978416 25 0 (ISBN 978 9 978416 25 9).

The Final Frontier: Towards Sustainable Management of Papua New Guinea's Agarwood Resource (664 KB) Frank Zich, James Compton (2001). 11pp. Published by: TRAFFIC Oceania in conjunction with WWF South Pacific Programme.

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Endangered Species Used in Traditional East Asian Medicine: Substitutes for Tiger Bone and Musk (scanned PDF, 8 MB). Edited by: S. Lam, R. Chang, M. Song. (2001). 101pp. (Chinese edition). Published by TRAFFIC East Asia. Chinese proceedings of the substitutes symposium held in Hong Kong in 1997.

Medicinal Plant Conservation Bibliography Volume 2 (PDF 7.15MB) (2001) Uwe Schippman

Medicinal Plants for the Future - Sustainability and Ethical Issues (Scanned PDF, 4.6 MB) Edited by: Andrew Pengelly and Anne Cowper. (2000). 116pp. Proceedings 13-14 August 1999, Byron Way, New South Wales, Australia. A conference addressing possible threats to the future supply of plant material for medicinal use. Published by: National Herbalist Association of Australia organised with the cooperation of TRAFFIC Oceania, WWF and IUCN.

Uso y Comercio Sostenible de Plantas Medicinales en Colombia (scanned PDF, 4.9 MB) Edited by: Adriana Rivera, Ximena Buitrón, Paola Rodríguez. (December 2000). 73pp. (Spanish Edition) Memorias del Seminario - Taller realizado el 18 y 19 de septiembre del 2000, Villa de Leyva – Colombia, TRAFFIC South America

CITES Listed Medicinal Plants of India: An Identification Manual (Scanned PDF - Part 1 (6.2 MB) and Part 2 (16 MB)) Ritwick Dutta, Pushp Jain. (October 2000). 85pp. Published by: TRAFFIC India and WWF-India.  

Regulation of Collection Transit and Trade of Medicinal Plants and other Non Timber Forest Products in India. A Compendium Ashok K. Jain. (October 2000). 529pp. Published by: TRAFFIC India and WWF-India.

Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in India: A reference book Dr. Ramesh Chandra Uniyal, Dr. Maya Ram Uniyal, Pushp Jain. (September 2000). 161pp. Published by: TRAFFIC India and WWF-India.

Heart of the Matter: Agarwood Use and Trade and CITES Implementation for Aquilaria malaccensis (524 KB) Angela Barden, Noorainie Awang Anak, Teresa Mulliken, Michael Song. (August 2000). 52pp. ISBN 1 85850 177 6 (ISBN 978 1 85850 177 2).

Sustainable Utilisation of Wildlife Medicinals in East and Southern Africa: A Challenge for Health and Natural Resources Sector (1999). (Scanned PDF, 1.2 MB) Proceedings of a workshop, 2-4 December 1998, Nairobi, Kenya. Published by: TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa.

Proceedings 13-14 August 1999, Byron Way, New South Wales, Australia A conference addressing possible threats to the future supply of plant material for medicinal use. Produced by: National Herbalist Association of Australia organised with the cooperation of TRAFFIC Oceania and WWF and IUCN.

Medicinal Plant Trade in Europe: Conservation and Supply. Proceedings. (1999) (Scanned PDF, 4 MB) 214pp. 22-23 June 1998, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. First International symposium on the conservation of medicinal plants in trade in Europe. Organized by: TRAFFIC Europe in collaboration with WWF, IUCN/SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Proceedings of the Workshop on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants (scanned PDF, 4 MB) Compiled by: Sue Kang, Samuel Lee. Edited by: Marcus Phipps, Melanie Pong. (1999). 51pp. (English and Korean edition)

Ecuador: Uso y Comercio de Plantas Medicinales: situación actual y aspectos importantes para su conservación (scanned PDF, 7.6 MB) (Ecuador: Use and Trade of Medicinal Plants: current situation and important aspects for its conservation) Edited by: Ximena Buitrón. (1999). 101pp. ISBN 9 978409 34 3 (ISBN 978 9 978409 34 3). (Spanish edition). Proceedings of a workshop 1-3 September 1999, Quito, Ecuador. Published by: TRAFFIC International

Healthy People - Healthy Wildlife: Proceedings of the Second Australian Symposium on Traditional Medicine and Wildlife Conservation (Scanned PDF, 2.9 MB) (March 1999). 68pp. ISBN 0 64254 644 4 (ISBN 978 0 64254 644 9). Published by: Commonwealth of Australia, Melbourne, Australia.

Ecuador: Uso y Comercio de Plantas Medicinales: situación actual y aspectos importantes para su conservación (PDF, 7.7. MB) (1999) Ximena Buitron C

A World Apart? Attitudes Toward Traditional Chinese Medicine and Endangered Species in Hong Kong and the United States (Summary, 360 KB) Samuel Lee, Craig Hoover, Andrea Gaski, Judy Mills. (1998). 80pp. ISBN 0 89161 156 4 (ISBN 978 0 89161 156 1). This report presents the results of in-depth research into the attitudes of consumers on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia, TRAFFIC North America, WWF-US

Attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese Towards Wildlife Conservation and the Use of Wildlife as Medicine and Food (Summary, 84 KB) Samuel K.H. Lee. (October 1998). 65pp.

Sustainable Utilisation of Wildlife Medicinals in East and Southern Africa: A Challenge for the Health and Natural Resource Sectors (PDF 4.74MB) (1998) IUCN, TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa, WWF

Searching for a Cure: Conservation of Medicinal Wildlife Resources in East and Southern Africa (scanned PDF: 10.2 MB; executive summary PDF: 128 KB) Nina T. Marshall. (September 1998). 112pp. ISBN 1 85850 151 2 (ISBN 978 1 85850 151 2). This report presents the results of an 18-month study of the trade in medicinal plants and animals in 17 countries. It identifies 102 medicinal plant species and 29 animal species as priorities for conservation, management or research. It also includes a wide range of general recommendations. Species in Danger series.

Europe’s Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their Use, Trade and Conservation (Scanned PDF, 3.2 MB) (Executive summary, 172 KB) Dagmar Lange. (June 1998). 77pp. ISBN 1 85850 144 X (ISBN 978 1 85850 144 4). This report reviews European trade and documents the results of in-depth studies in eight countries: Albania, Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Spain, Turkey and the UK. It identifies 150 species that could be at risk in one of several countries from over-collection in the wild.

American Ginseng: The Root of North America’s Medicinal Herb Trade (scanned PDF, 6 MB) (Executive summary, 88 KB) Christopher S. Robbins. (May 1998). 94pp. This report examines the harvest, trade, conservation status, and management of P. quinquefolius in North America.

While Supplies Last: The Sale of Tiger and Other Endangered Species Medicines in North America, 1996-1997 (Summary, 80 KB) (Scanned full report PDF, 3 MB) Edited by: Andrea L. Gaski. (January 1998). 57pp. TRAFFIC North America investigated the display and sale of endangered species products in two Canadian and five US cities beginning in late 1996 through fall of 1997.

Healthy People - Healthy Wildlife: Proceedings of the First Symposium on Traditional Medicines and Wildlife Conservation (Scanned PDF, 3.2 MB) (August 1997). 67pp. ISBN 0 64254 503 0 (ISBN 978 0 64254 503 9). Published by: Environment Australia Biodiversity Group, Sydney, Australia.

Rhinoceros Horn and Tiger Bone in China: An Investigation of Trade since the 1993 Ban (Scanned PDF, 3 MB) (Summary, 136 KB) J. A. Mills. (April 1997). 49pp. ISBN 1 85850 128 8 (ISBN 978 1 85850 128 4).

Untersuchung der Gefährdung von Pflanzenarten durch den internationalen Heilpflanzenhandel mit Indien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Handels zwischen Indien und Deutschland (Investigation on the threats towards plants species caused by the international medicinal plant trade with India, with a special reference towards the trade Between Germany and India.) Dagmar Lange. (1996). 103 pp + appendices. (German edition)

Of Tiger Treatments & Rhino Remedies: Trade in Endangered Species Medicines In Australia and New Zealand Debra J. Callister, Tara Bythewood. (May 1995). 32pp. ISBN 0 64624 157 5 (ISBN 978 0 64624 157 9).

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Trade of Bear Parts for Medicinal Use Edited by: Debra A. Rose, Andrea L. Gaski. (April 1995). 167pp. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia.

Trade in Agarwood (Scanned PDF, 1.7 MB) Kalyan Chakrabarty, Ashok Kumar, Vivek Menon. (August 1994). 51pp.

Prescription for Extinction: Endangered Species and Patented Oriental Medicines in Trade (Scanned PDF, 8.8. MB) Andrea L. Gaski, Kurt A. Johnson. (May 1994). 300pp. The product of extensive research initiated in the late 1980s, this report is an important reference work on patented Oriental medicines and an analysis of their use of endangered and threatened wildlife. Species in Danger report.

Medicinal Plants and Plant Extracts: A Review of their Importation into Europe Anna Lewington. (May 1993). 37pp. ISBN 0 947613 99 4 (ISBN 978 0 947613 99 0). An overview of the pharmaceutical trade in wild plant material and recommendations for future conservation action.

Medicine from the Wild: An Overview of the U.S. Native Medicinal Plant Trade and its Conservation Implications (Scanned PDF, 1.1 MB) Douglas O. Fuller. (1991). 28pp.

A Note on the Use of Wild Animal Organs in Tibetan Medicines (Scanned PDF, 1.4 MB) Dr. Virinder Singh Undated. 26pp.

CITES Listed Medicinal Plants of India: An Identification Manual (PDF 44MB) (2000) Ritwick Dutta, Pushp Jain