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Reports available as PDFs can be downloaded here. To receive printed copies of these and other reports, please contact or TRAFFIC, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK, stating clearly which report(s) you wish to receive and your postal address

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Illegal otter trade: An analysis of seizures in selected Asian countries (1980-2015) (PDF, 3.5MB) by Lalita Gomez, Boyd T. C. Leupen, Meryl Theng, Katrina Fernandez and Melissa Savage. This study is an analysis of otter seizure data during the period 1980 to July 2015 inclusive, for four species of otter in Asia: the Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra, the Hairy-nosed Otter Lutra sumatrana, the Small-clawed Otter Aonyx cinereus and the Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata. The illegal wildlife trade poses a direct threat to all four species as they are popular for their fur and increasingly for their supposed qualities as pets.

Hauling out: International trade and management of Walrus (PDF, 3.2 MB) by Tanya Shadbolt, Tom Arnbom & Ernest W. T. Cooper. (2014). TRAFFIC and WWF-Canada. Vancouver, B.C. This report focuses primarily on the international trade of walrus parts and derivatives. The purpose is to provide insight into current international trade, limitations in available information and potential impacts trade might be having on the conservation of the species.

Mise en Oeuvre de la CITES par les Pays de l’Espace COMIFAC: Evaluation Préliminaire des Besoins (1.2 MB) by B. Ononino, G. Ngandjui et E.E. Fossung. (2013). Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Geneva, Switzerland. 91 pp. ISBN 978-1-85850-370-7.

Illegal hunting & the bushmeat trade in savanna Africa: Drivers, impacts & solutions to address the problem (PDF, 2.5 MB) (2012). P Lindsey et al. Panthera/Zoological Society of London/Wildlife Conservation Society report, New York. 74 pp.

Développement d’un système de suivi de la filière ―viande de brousse‖ en Afrique Centrale: SYVBAC (PDF, 1.2 MB) (2010). TRAFFIC Central Africa publication.

Development of a Central African Bushmeat Monitoring System: SYVBAC (PDF, 1.2 MB) (2010). TRAFFIC Central Africa publication.

Elaboration de la Stratégie et du Plan d’Action  National sur la « viande de brousse » Rapport de l’atelier de Kinshasa – 23-24 septembre 2009. (PDF, 3 MB) by Stéphane Ringuet, Boyzibu Ekhassa, Nathalie van Vliet, Germain Ngandjui & Eva Paule Mouzong (2011). 86pp. TRAFFIC Afrique Centrale, Yaoundé, Cameroun.


Apes in Demand for zoos and wildlife attractions in Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (PDF: 6.0MB) by Claire A. Beastall, Jamie Bouhuys and Anna Ezekiel (November 2016). TRAFFIC. Selangor, Malaysia. ISBN no: 978-983-3393-51-0. This report investigates the species, numbers and sources of apes held in zoos and wildlife attractions in Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand and responds to concerns over the global high demand for apes, especially juveniles, for display in zoos and wildlife facilities, and the illegal removal of these apes from the wild.

An assessment of trade in gibbons and orang-utans in Sumatra, Indonesia (620 KB) Vincent Nijman (April 2009). 45pp. ISBN9789833393244. An assessment of the trade in gibbons and orang-utans in Sumatra, Indonesia, including the islands off Sumatra’s west coast (most notably, the Mentawai Islands). TRAFFIC Southeast Asia publication.

Hanging in the Balance: An Assessment of Trade in Orang-utans and Gibbons on Kalimantan, Indonesia
(572 KB) Vincent Nijman. (August 2005). 44pp. ISBN 983 3393 03 9 (ISBN 978 983 3393 03 9). This report presents an assessment of the trade in gibbons and orang-utans in Kalimantan, which is part of Indonesia’s territory on the island of Borneo.

In Full Swing: An Assessment of Trade in Orang-utans and Gibbons on Java and Bali, Indonesia Vincent Nijman. (June 2005). 49pp. ISBN 983 3393 00 4 (ISBN 978 983 3393 00 8). This report presents an assessment of the trade in seven species of gibbon and two species of orang-utan on the island of Java and Bali, the economic, industrial and political centres of the Republic of Indonesia.

Non-Human Primates in the Netherlands. A survey of import and export, ownership and use. Report no.6 (scanned PDF, 3.1 MB) Frans A.Van Der Helm, Ignaas Spruit. (1988). 88pp. Provided in collaboration with IPPL (NL)

The International Primate Trade. Vol.1 (scanned PDF, 9.4 MB) Edited by: David Mack Russell, A Mittermeier. (1984). 185pp.

CETACEA (Whales, dolphins)

A Survey of the Commercial Trade in Whale Meat Products in Japan Akiko Ishihara, Junichi Yoshii. (2003). 66pp. (English and Japanese) Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia – Japan.

Monitoring progress in Norway's development of a DNA register as part of its domestic management system for whale meat, investigating local whale meat trade, and investigating reports of illegal trade in blubber (388 KB) Caroline Raymakers. (July 2001). 26pp. This study looks at the progress made by the Norwegian authorities in setting-up a DNA register and attempt to verify its efficiency. Other aspects of Norwegian control of whaling and marketing of related products are described.

A preliminary Report on DNA Sequence Analysis of Whale Meat and Whale Meat Products Collected in Japan M. Phipps, A. Ishihara, N. Kanda, H. Suzuki. (September 2000). 8pp. Reprint from TRAFFIC Bulletin Vol.17, no.2, 1998.

A Survey of Whale Meat Markets along South Korea's Coast (104 KB) Sue Kang, Marcus Phipps. (July 2000). 13pp.

A Survey of the Commercial Trade in Whale Meat Products in Japan (312 KB) Akiko Ishihara, Junichi Yoshii. (June 2000). 20pp. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia – Japan.

Whale Meat Trade in East Asia: A Review of the Markets in 1997 (Summary, 180 KB) Judy Mills, Akiko Ishihara, Isao Sakaguchi, Sue Kang, Rob Parry-Jones, Marcus Phipps. (May 1997). 26pp. ISBN 1 85850 1253 (ISBN 978 1 85850 125 3). Presenting the results of TRAFFIC's 1997 surveys of whale meat markets in Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The most serious problems identified with regard to illegal catch and trade in whales were in Japan and South Korea. These surveys were undertaken in preparation for the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which took place in June 1997.

DNA Sequence Analysis of Whale Meat and Whale Meat Products Collected in Japan (PDF 1.35MB) (2000) TRAFFIC East-Asia Japan, WWF, IUCN

PHOLIDOTA (Pangolins)

Observations of the illegal Pangolin Trade in Lao PDR (PDF 4MB) by Lalita Gomez, Boyd T C leupen and Sarah Heinrich. (September 2016). TRAFFIC. Selangor, Malaysia. ISBN no 978-983-3393-54-1. This report explores Lao PDR’s role in the illegal pangolin trade and discusses the findings of two market surveys, conducted in several locations as well as the outcomes of an analysis of pangolin seizures that involved Lao PDR as either an origin, transit, seizure or destination country.

TRAFFIC Briefing: An Overview of Pangolin Trade in China (PDF 3.5MB) by Ling Xu, Jing Guan, Wilson Lau and Yu Xiao. (September 2016). TRAFFIC. This report presents widespread evidence of ongoing illegal trade in pangolin scales but an apparently reduced market for pangolin meat in China.

A Preliminary Assessment of Pangolin Trade in Sabah (PDF, 500 KB) by Sandrine Pantel & Noorainie Awang Anak. 2010. 30pp. ISBN 9789833393305. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. This report presents the results of an interview-based survey carried out among pangolin hunters on the west coast of Sabah, as well as an analysis of logbooks, covering a period of 20 months, confiscated from a criminal syndicate involved in the trade of pangolins and obtained during a raid carried out by the Sabah Wildlife Department.

Proceedings of the workshop on trade and conservation of pangolins native to South and Southeast Asia, 30 June-2 July 2008, Singapore Zoo, Singapore (3 MB) Edited by S. Pantel and S.Y. Chin. 227pp. Published by: TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.

CARNIVORA (Bears, cats etc)


An Assessment of Trade in Bear Bile and Gall Bladder in Viet Nam (PDF: 6MB) by Daniel Willcox, Nguyen D. T. Minh and Lalita Gomez (November 2016). TRAFFIC. Selangor, Malaysia. ISBN no: ISBN 978-983-3393-66-4. This report is the follow up to a survey in 2016 to investigate the availability  and sources of bear bile, bear gall bladders and bear parts, and to document the market dynamics in traditional medicine (TM) outlets and bear farms in six major cities across Viet Nam.
Hard to Bear: An assessment of trade in bear bile and gall bladder in Malaysia (PDF, 2MB) by Lee Siow Ling, Elizabeth A. Burgess and Serene C.L. Chng. (2015). TRAFFIC, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. This study reports on a 2012 survey of the trade in bear parts and derivatives in 365 TCM shops throughout all 13 states of Malaysia and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur.

Brought to Bear: an Analysis of Seizures across Asia (2000–2011)
(PDF, 1.1 MB) by Elizabeth A. Burgess, Sarah S. Stoner and Kaitlyn-Elizabeth Foley. (2014) TRAFFIC, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. This report highlights the multiplicity of how bears are being exploited for trade across Asia. The trade encompasses all four endemic species of bears found across Asia and involves more than 17 countries/territories in the region, each with certain preferences for particular bear products.

Icon on Ice: International trade and management of Polar Bears (PDF, 5 MB) (Executive Summary, 600 KB) by T. Shadbolt, , G. York, G. and E.W.T. Cooper. (2012). 169pp. ISBN: 978-0-9693730-6-3. TRAFFIC North America and WWF-Canada. Vancouver, B.C. This report examines international trade in polar bear parts and derivatives, and provides recommendations to improve the conservation and management of the global polar bear population into the future.


Pills, Powders, Vials & Flakes: The bear bile trade in Asia (PDF, 1 MB) Kaitlyn-Elizabeth Foley, Carrie J Stengel, Chris R Shepherd. (2011) 67pp. ISBN 9789833393336. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on the Trade in Bear Parts (2.3 MB) Edited by: D.Williamson. 2008. 99pp. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia. Symposium held at Nagano, Japan, 4 October 2006.
Bear Necessities: An Analysis of Brown Bear Management and Trade in Selected Range States and the European Union’s Role in the Trophy Trade (4.5 MB) Amelie Knapp. 2006. 76pp. ISBN 2 9600505 2 5 (ISBN 978 2 9600505 2 3). Using CITES trade data for 1975-2003, this report analyses the international trade in Brown Bear trophies and the role the EU plays in this trade. The report also presents information on the status and distribution of Brown Bears in nine range States, threats to the species and management and conservation measures.

Bear Gall Bladder Trade in Japan (3 MB) Akiko Ishihara. 2005. 98pp (Japanese and English) Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia-Japan.

In the Black: Status, Management and Trade of the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) in North America (2 MB) Douglas F. Williamson. April 2002. 161pp. ISBN 0 89164 165 3 (ISBN 978 0 89164 165 0). Published by: TRAFFIC North America and WWF-US.

A review of State bear trade laws (scanned PDF, 5 MB). by Douglas E. Williamson. 1999. TRAFFIC North America  publication.

Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Trade in Bear Parts
Edited by: D.Williamson, M.J.Phipps. 2001. 186pp. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia, Ministry of Environment of ROK and IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group. Symposium held at National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 26-28 October, 1999

Trade in Musk and Bear Bile in India: A TRAFFIC India Study in the areas of Sikkim, Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council and Arunachal Pradesh Field Investigator: Sunil Subba. Facilitators: Dr. Ravikant Avasthe, Soumen Dey. July 2000. 41pp.

The Status of Bears in Europe and Russia Karin Berkhoudt. December 1999. 159pp. (English edition)

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on the Trade of Bear Parts (scanned PDF, 12.5 MB) Edited by: Douglas F. Williamson, Andrea L. Gaski. 1997. 239pp. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia.

Is It Really from a Bear? A Simple Method for Identifying Bear Gall Bladder 1995. 12pp. (Manual and video). Report published in collaboration with the World Society for the Protection of Animals' Libearty Campaign.

The Bear Facts: The East Asian Market for Bear Gall Bladder (Summary, 104 KB) J.A. Mills, Simba Chan, Akiko Ishihara. July 1995. 41pp. ISBN 1 85850 071 0 (ISBN 978 1 85850 071 3). Discussions in this report address bear farming in China; Hong Kong's gall bladder registration scheme; biological implications of the legal trade in bear gall bladder in Japan; and Taiwan's efforts to monitor its domestic market for bear gall bladder. Recommendations are given to better understand, monitor and control the trade. Species in Danger series.

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Trade of Bear Parts for Medicinal Use Edited by: Debra A. Rose, Andrea L. Gaski. April 1995. 167pp. Published by: TRAFFIC East Asia.

Status, Management and Commercialization of the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) Catherine McCracken, Debra A. Rose, Kurt A. Johnson. January 1995. 132pp.

The Asian Trade in Bears and Bear Parts (Scanned PDF, 4.4 MB) Judy A. Mills, Christopher Servheen. 1991. 113pp.



Reduced To Skin And Bones Re-Examined: Full Analysis: An analysis of Tiger seizures from 13 range countries from 2000-2015 (PDF: 4MB) by Sarah Stoner, Kanitha Krishnasamy, Talia Wittmann, Steven Delean and Philip Cassey (November 2016). TRAFFIC. Selangor, Malaysia. A comprehensive analysis of 16 years of Tiger seizures shows that Asia’s failure to ramp up enforcement, close Tiger farms, strengthen laws and reduce demand are to blame for the persistent illegal trade in Tiger parts.

An Ounce of Prevention: Snow Leopard Crime revisited (PDF: 4MB) by Kristin Nowell, Juan Li, Mikhail Paltsyn and Rishi Kumar Sharma (October 2016). TRAFFIC. Cambridge, UK. ISBN no: 978-1-85850-409-4. With possibly as few as 4,000 snow leopards surviving in the wild, a new report from TRAFFIC has found that hundreds of the endangered big cats are being killed illegally each year across their range in Asia’s high mountains.

Reduced to skin and bones re-examined : An analysis of Tiger seizures from 13 range countries from 2000-2015 (PDF) by Sarah Stoner and Kanitha Krishnasamy (September 2016). TRAFFIC. Selangor, Malaysia. This Briefing Document highlights top-line findings about tiger trade and trafficking from the detailed analysis over the 16 years, including key occurrences and patterns over the period assessed.  Key recommendations are provided for consideration by actors at national, regional and international levels.

Bones of Contention: An assessment of the South African trade in African Lion bones and other body parts (PDF, 5 MB) by Williams, V.L., Newton, D.J., Loveridge, A.J. and Macdonald, D.W. (2015). 112pp. ISBN 978-1-85850-383-7. The Lion bone trade is a contentious and complex conservation issue spanning continents and cultures and a diverse array of role-players. A critical question that emerged during the research was: what events (if any) drove the demand for Lion bones in East–Southeast Asia?

Reduced to Skin & Bones Revisited: An Updated Analysis of Tiger Seizures From 12 Tiger Range Countries (2000-2012) (PDF, 3.5 MB) by Sarah Stoner & Natalia Pervushina (2013). 42pp. ISBN 983-3393-37-4. This report provides an updated situational analysis of the current illegal Tiger trade picture, to gain an improved understanding of one of the greatest threats to the Tiger’s survival.

"It’s not my Tiger" (PDF, 1.3 MB) by A. Vaisman. TRAFFIC (2012) (in Russian). A review of Russian wildlife legislation.

Behaviour Change We Can Believe In: Towards A Global Demand Reduction Strategy for Tigers (PDF, 900 KB) by Sabri Zain (2012). This paper discusses why conservationists need to explore new approaches to understanding and influencing the behaviours that are driving consumer demand for Tiger and other products, and examines tools and models that can address the underlying drivers of these behaviours.

Illuminating the blind spot: A Study on Illegal Trade in Leopard Parts in India (2001-2010) (PDF, 3.3 MB). 38pp. ISBN 978-1-85850-254-0. (2012). TRAFFIC India. A study on the illegal trade in Leopard parts in India with an aim to provide, firstly, indicators of the severity of the trade in Leopard parts in India, and secondly, to identify regions where effective and enhanced enforcement measures will help to have a significant impact in curbing this trade.

The big cat trade in Myanmar and Thailand (PDF, 1.5 MB) Adam Oswell. (2010). TRAFFIC Southeast Asia publication. 32pp. ISBN 978 983 3393 312. Between January 2001 and June 2010 a total of 493 big cat parts were observed at markets and during covert investigations in Myanmar and Thailand.

Reduced to Skin and Bones: An Analysis of Tiger Seizures from 11 Tiger Range Countries (2000–2010) (PDF, 4 MB) Pauline Verheij, Kaitlyn-Elizabeth Foley and Katalina Engel. (2010). TRAFFIC International. 44pp. ISBN 978-1-85850-244-1. This report presents a compilation and analysis of available data on Tiger seizures from 11 of the 13 Tiger range countries over the past 10 years.

The wild cat trade in Myanmar (PDF, 1.1 MB) Chris R Shepherd and Vincent Nijman. (2008). TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. 16pp. ISBN 9833393152. A total of 1,320 wild cat parts, representing an absolute minimum of 1158 individual animals were observed during 12 surveys carried out in Myanmar (formerly Burma) between 1991 and 2006. These parts represented all eight species of wild cats found in Myanmar.

Paper Tigers? The role of the U.S. captive Tiger population in the trade in Tiger parts (1.9 MB) Douglas F. Williamson & Leigh A. Henry (July 2008). TRAFFIC North America. 52pp. A report examining the regulations concerning the keeping and breeding of Tigers in captivity in the U.S.A.

The Tiger Trade Revisited in Sumatra, Indonesia (1.1 MB) Julia Ng and Nemora. (February 2008) (English and Bahasa Indonesian). TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. 58pp.  ISBN 978 983 3393 09 1. Report into the ongoing and illegal open trade in Tiger parts in Sumatra 

Taming the Tiger Trade: China’s Markets for Wild and Captive Tiger Products Since the 1993 Domestic Trade Ban (2.7 MB) Kristin Nowell, Xu Ling. (March 2007). 64pp. ISBN 978 1 85850 228 4. TRAFFIC’s findings in this report provide strong evidence that China’s trade ban has been effective at reducing the market for Tiger products, particularly traditional medicines. Still, illegal trade remains a threat. China’s progress in Tiger conservation, especially Tiger trade, would almost certainly be undone if China’s market for Tiger products were re-opened.

Nowhere to Hide: The Trade in Sumatran Tiger (2 MB) Chris R. Shepherd, Nolan Magnus. (March 2004). 98pp. ISBN 983 99246 6 4 (ISBN 978 983 99246 6 4). The Sumatran Tiger is listed as Critically Endangered, (the highest category of threat), on the IUCN 2003 Red List of Threatened Animals. The findings of this report show the structure and extent of the trade in Sumatran tiger bone and other tiger parts, which is essential in guiding future work and in highlighting the importance of increased enforcement.

Fading Footprints: The Killing and Trade of Snow Leopards (1.4 MB) Stephanie Theile. (August 2003). 72pp. ISBN 1 85850 201 2 (ISBN 978 1 85850 201 4). Snow Leopards, in a genus of their own, are endangered big cats. Surveys of trade in Snow Loepards were conducted in Mongolia and Pakistan, and information was collected by consultants in India and the Russian Federation during 2002. The results clearly show that Snow Leopards and their parts are traded in all range States, with the possible exception of Bhutan. In the large majority of cases, this trade is illegal.

A CITES Priority: Conservation of Tigers and Other Asian Big Cats- TRAFFIC and WWF Briefing Document (PDF 836KB) (2002) TRAFFIC and IUCN

Far from a Cure: The Tiger Trade Revisited (1 MB) Kristin Nowell. (March 2000). 100pp. ISBN 1 85850 173 3 (ISBN 978 1 85850 173 4) (English and Chinese editions). This report examines the tiger trade in the late 1990s. In particular, it looks at the extent illegal trade in tiger bone can still be considered the leading threat to the tiger's survival in addition to the trade in skins and other tiger parts. The report urges range states to enforce trade bans and improve anti-poaching measures among other recommendations.

While Supplies Last: The Sale of Tiger and Other Endangered Species Medicines in North America, 1996-1997 (Summary, PDF, 144 KB) (Scanned full report PDF, 3 MB) Edited by: Andrea L. Gaski. (January 1998). 57pp. TRAFFIC North America investigated the display and sale of endangered species products in two Canadian and five US cities beginning in late 1996 through fall of 1997.

Tiger Progress? The Response to CITES Resolution Conf. 9.13 (Summary, 144 KB) Susan A. Mainka. (May 1997). 82pp. ISBN 1 85850 1296 (ISBN 978 1 85850 129 1). (Summary, 144 KB) This report examines the response to the resolution adopted by the Conference of the Parties to CITES in 1994. The resolution called upon Parties to take a variety of actions to help save the world's remaining tigers from extinction. The report examines the response to the resolution from 29 select countries and territories, for which information was available. The response to the resolution was found to be incomplete, with few countries honouring their commitment to the actions agreed.

Rhinoceros Horn and Tiger Bone in China: An Investigation of Trade since the 1993 Ban (Scanned PDF, 3 MB) (Summary, 136 KB) J. A. Mills. (April 1997). 49pp. ISBN 1 85850 128 8 (ISBN 978 1 85850 128 4). In China, domestic trade in both tiger and rhinoceros products has been banned since 1993 and the maximum penalty for illicit trade is death. However, in this report TRAFFIC documents that Tiger and rhinoceros-based and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) continue to be available. Species in Danger series.

Of Tiger Treatments & Rhino Remedies: Trade in Endangered Species Medicines In Australia and New Zealand Debra J. Callister, Tara Bythewood. (May 1995). 32pp. ISBN 0 64624 157 5 (ISBN 978 0 64624 157 9).

Killed for a Cure: A Review of the Worldwide Trade in Tiger Bone (Scanned PDF, 2.7 MB) Judy A. Mills, Peter Jackson. (August 1994). 52pp. ISBN 185850 049 4 (ISBN 978 185850 049 2). A focus on the use of Tiger bone as a medicinal, this review compiles what is known of the status of Tiger populations, the uses and value of Tiger bone, the extent to which it is traded globally, and offers recommendations for Tiger conservation.

The Harvest of and Trade in Latin American Spotted Cats and Otters (PDF 6.65MB) (1987) Steven Broad

Cats in Captivity. Report no.1 Drs. A.M.Frederikse. (1986). 44pp (Dutch edition).



The US Elephant Ivory Market: A New Baseline (PDF: 3.25MB) by Rachel Kramer, Robin Sawyer, Sal Amato and Peter LaFontaine (July 2017). TRAFFIC. Washington DC, USA. This study has established a baseline for the status of the US elephant ivory market around the time that a series of changes to federal regulations, enforcing a “near-total ban” on imports, exports, and domestic trade of African Elephant ivory, were imposed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

A Rapid Assessment of US Physical Ivory Markets (PDF, 500KB) by Rachel Kramer, Sal Amato, Robin Sawyer, Giavanna Grein, Crawford Allan and Peter LaFontaine (October 2016). TRAFFIC. A rapid assessment by TRAFFIC of selected domestic ivory markets in the U.S. finds that state bans appear to be having an impact on reducing the open availability of elephant ivory in formerly significant urban markets.

In Transition: Bangkok’s Ivory Market: An 18-month survey of Bangkok’s ivory market (PDF) by Kanitha Krishnasamy, Tom Milliken and Chution Savin (September 2016). TRAFFIC. Selangor, Malaysia. This report provides a summary overview of Bangkok’s ivory marketplace, and provides  comparisons with TRAFFIC’s previous market surveys in 2013 and early 2014.

Malaysia's Invisible Ivory Channel: An assessment of ivory seizures involving Malaysia from January 2003 - May 2014 (PDF, 3MB) by Kanitha Krishnasamy (September 2016). TRAFFIC. Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.  ISBN no: 978-983-3393-52-7. This report discusses some insights from the ivory seizures over the period Jan 2003 - May 2014, as well as highlighting needs and opportunities in order for Malaysia to remove itself from its current position as a country of international concern for illicit trade in ivory under CITES.

An act to save African Elephants - A ban on commercial ivory trade in China: A feasibility study briefing (PDF, 6 MB) by Xu, Y.; Xiao, Y.; Guan, J. and Lau, W. (2016). WWF and TRAFFIC, Beijing, China.

Setting Suns: the Historical Decline of Ivory and Rhino Horn Markets in Japan (PDF, 2.3 MB) by Tomomi Kitade and Ayako Toko. (2016). TRAFFIC. Tokyo, JAPAN. ISBN no: 978-4-915613-30-2. This report sheds light on Japan’s wildlife trade history as a case study on the contributing factors that helped reduce the market for rhino horn and elephant ivory.

An assessment of the live elephant trade in Thailand provides details of between 79 and 81 wild elephants illegally captured for sale into the tourist industry in Thailand between April 2011 and March 2013.

Polishing off the Ivory Trade: Surveys of Thailand's Ivory Market (PDF, 2 MB) by Naomi Doak. (2014). TRAFFIC, Cambridge, UK.

Illegal Trade in Ivory and rhino horn: an Assessment Report to improve law enforcement under the Wildlife TRAPS project (1.8 MB) by T. Milliken. (2014). USAID and TRAFFIC. ISBN 978-1-85850-373-8

A Rapid Response Assessment: Elephants in the Dust: The African Elephant Crisis (PDF 39MB) (2013) UNEP, CITES, IUCN, TRAFFIC

Développement d’un Système de Gestion des Stocks d’Ivoire au Gabon: Propositions de Standards Minimums (1.6 MB) by S. Ringuet et J.-F. Lagrot. (2013). Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Geneva, Switzerland. 66 pp. ISBN 978-1-85850-369-1.

TRAFFIC's engagement in the fight against illegal trade in elephant ivory (PDF, 450 KB). (2013) Factsheet.

Audit des stocks gouvernementaux d’ivoire au Gabon (PDF, 2.7 MB) Stephane Ringuet. (2012).

MANUEL ETIS: Le programme ETIS de suivi du commerce illégal de l'ivoire et autres produits de l'éléphant d'Afrique Loxodonta africana comme outil de protection de l'éléphant au Cameroun (PDF, 750 KB)

The elephant and ivory trade in Thailand (800 KB) Daniel Stiles. (June 2009). ISBN 9789833393206. TRAFFIC recorded the number and types of ivory items seen for sale across Thailand between December 2006 and February 2008. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.

An assessment of the illegal ivory trade in Viet Nam (500 KB) Daniel Stiles. (February 2009). ISBN 9789833393190. In 2008, TRAFFIC set out to compile existing and new information on the trade specifically in elephant ivory in Viet Nam in consultation with relevant experts and stakeholders. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.

Elephant and ivory trade in Myanmar (1.4 MB) Chris R Shepherd and Vincent Nijman. December 2008. 32pp. ISBN 9789833393169. Ivory, other elephant parts are routinely smuggled out of Myanmar in contravention of the Protection of Wildlife and Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural Areas Law (State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.583/94.1994), suggesting a serious lack of law enforcement and a blatant disregard for international conventions and national laws. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia

No Peace for Elephants: Unregulated domestic ivory markets in Angola and Mozambique (1.1 MB) Tom Milliken, Alistair Pole, Abias Huongo. Edited by: Tom Milliken. April 2006. Prepared by: TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.11.

No Oasis: Egyptian ivory trade in 2005 (1.5 MB) Esmond Martin, Tom Milliken. June 2005. 23pp. ISBN 1 85850 208 X (ISBN 978 1 85850 208 3). A comprehensive survey of the ivory trade in Egypt, focused upon the cities of Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Hurghada and Sharm el-Sheikh, was undertaken in March and April 2005. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.10.

Tackling the Ivories: The Status of the US Trade in Elephant and Hippo Ivory (1.1 MB) Douglas F. Williamson. September 2004. 54pp. ISBN 0 89164 174 2 (ISBN 978 0 89164 174 2). Between January and mid April 2004, TRAFFIC researched and analyzed the contemporary role of the USA in the international trade of elephant and hippo ivory.

More Ivory than Elephants: Domestic Ivory Markets in Three West African Countries (English with French summary, 924 KB) Marianne Courouble, Francis Hurst, Tom Milliken. December 2003. 65pp. ISBN 1 85850 203 9 (ISBN 978 1 85850 203 8). Prepared by: TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.8.

The Ivory Markets of East Asia (PDF 1.29MB) (2003) Esmond Martin and Daniel Stiles

ETIS Training Manual Edited by: Meng Xianlin, Wan Ziming Yu, Dawei Zhong Hai. December 2003. 147pp. Published by: CITES Management Authority of the People’s Republic of China, TRAFFIC East Asia.

An Assessment of the Domestic Ivory Carving Industry and Trade Controls in India (680 KB) February 2003.32pp. ISBN 1 85850 199 7 (ISBN 978 1 85850 199 4). Prepared by: TRAFFIC India. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.7.

Japan's Trade in Ivory after the Tenth Conference of the Parties to CITES (540 KB) Hisako Kiyono. September 2002. 21pp. ISBN 1 85850 198 9 (ISBN 978 1 85850 198 7). Prepared by: TRAFFIC East Asia-Japan. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.6.

The Trade of Elephants and Elephant Parts in Myanmar (500 KB) Chris R. Shepherd. August 2002. 16pp. ISBN 1 85850 197 0 (ISBN 978 1 85850 197 0). Prepared by: TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.5.

An Investigation of the Ivory Market in Taiwan (476 KB) Joyce Wu, Marcus Phipps. August 2002. 23pp. Prepared by: TRAFFIC East Asia-Taipei. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.4.

An Assessment of China's Management of Trade in Elephants and Elephant Products (832 KB) Caitlin O'Connell-Rodwell, Rob Parry-Jones. July 2002. 55pp. ISBN 1 85850 195 4 (ISBN 978 1 85850 195 6). Prepared by: TRAFFIC East Asia. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.3.

An Assessment of the Illegal Trade in Elephants and Elephant Products in Viet Nam (768 KB) (July 2002) 29pp. ISBN 1 85850 194 6 (ISBN 978 1 85850 194 9). Prepared by: The Viet Nam Ecological Association, TRAFFIC Southeast Asia-Indochina office, Forest Protection Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. TRAFFIC Online Report Series No.2.

The World's Unregulated Domestic Ivory Markets- A TRAFFIC Briefing Document (PDF 1.85MB) (2002) Tom Milliken

Still in Business: The Ivory Trade in Asia, Seven Years after the CITES Ban (summary, 100 KB) Edited by: Stephen V. Nash. April 1997. 82pp. ISBN 1 85850 124 5 (ISBN 978 1 85850 124 6). This report provides a review of current Asian ivory trade, examining the recent information from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. The main volume of trade is no longer in intricate works of art, but in signature seals (known as hankos in Japanese) used to transact everyday business in some parts of Asia. The report shows that Asia's ivory industry is still in business, seven years after the international ban.

Monitoring of Trade in Elephant Products and Illegal Killing of Elephants, Nairobi, Kenya, 8-12 December 1997 (PDF 1.43MB) TRAFFIC and IUCN/SSC (1997)

Four Years After the CITES Ban: Illegal Killing of Elephants, Ivory Trade and Stockpile H.T. Dublin, T. Milliken, R.F.W. Barnes. January 1995. 110pp Published by: IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group.

The Impact of the Ivory Ban on Poaching and Ivory Trade in Cameroon
Tom De Meulenaer. July 1994. 33pp.

Identification Guide for Ivory and Ivory Substitutes (Scanned PDF, 2.6 MB) Edgard O. Espinoza, Mary-Jacque Mann. 1992. 35pp. (Second edition). 

White Gold, The Ivory Trade: A briefing document March 1992. 242pp.

Recent US Imports of Certain Products from the African Elephant. Jorgen B. Thomsen. August 1987. 25pp. A report to the Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment, Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, US House of Representatives.

PERISSODACTYLA (Horses, rhinos etc)

Setting Suns: the Historical Decline of Ivory and Rhino Horn Markets in Japan (PDF, 2.3 MB) by Tomomi Kitade and Ayako Toko. (2016). TRAFFIC. Tokyo, JAPAN. ISBN no: 978-4-915613-30-2. This report sheds light on Japan’s wildlife trade history as a case study on the contributing factors that helped reduce the market for rhino horn and elephant ivory.

Illegal Trade in Ivory and rhino horn: an Assessment Report to improve law enforcement under the Wildlife TRAPS project (1.8 MB) by T. Milliken. (2014). USAID and TRAFFIC. ISBN 978-1-85850-373-8

Shutting down the rhino horn trade - Factsheet. 2013. (PDF, 400 KB).

African rhinos - Factsheet. 2013. (PDF, 400 KB)

The South Africa - Viet Nam Rhino Horn Trade Nexus: A deadly combination of institutional lapses, corrupt wildlife industry professionals and Asian crime syndicates (PDF, 3 MB. Executive Summary, 700 KB) Tom Milliken and Jo Shaw (2012). TRAFFIC. 180pp. ISBN 978-0-9584025-8-3. TRAFFIC’s comprehensive overview of events and dynamics currently driving an escalating illicit trade in rhino horns from South Africa to Viet Nam.

Rhino Horn Stockpile management: Minimum standards and best practices from east and southern Africa (1.3 MB) Simon Milledge. (2004). 28pp. ISBN 0 95840 258 2 (ISBN 978 0 95840 258 3). This document presents recommended practices for rhino horn stockpile management and is based upon best examples of management currently employed throughout East and Southern Africa.

Rhino Progress? The Response to CITES Resolution Conf. 9.14
(summary, 104 KB) Susan A. Mainka. (June 1997). 27pp. ISBN 1 85850 130 X (ISBN 978 1 85850 130 7). This report examines the response by 14 rhinoceros states and 18 consumer countries and territories to this resolution, adopted in 1994 by the Parties to CITES. Many of the activities recommended in this resolution are under way, however funding to support rhinoceros conservation is still in severe shortfall. Only five of the consumer countries and territories surveyed have provided assistance with rhinoceros conservation activities since 1994.

On A Knife's Edge: The Rhinoceros Horn Trade in Yemen (summary, 192 KB (scanned PDF full report, 5 MB) Esmond Bradley Martin, Lucy Vigne, Crawford Allan. (May 1997). 48pp. ISBN 1 85850 127 X (ISBN 978 1 85850 127 7). This report examines the continuing use of rhinoceros horn in the production of jambiya in Yemen. The report documents the results of TRAFFIC and WWF fieldwork data collected on the trade in rhinoceros horn in Yemen from 1978-1996. It focuses on the centuries-old trade in horn of Black Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis and White Rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum from Africa to Sanaa, Yemen's capital.

Rhinoceros Horn and Tiger Bone in China: An Investigation of Trade since the 1993 Ban (Scanned PDF, 3 MB) (Summary, 136 KB) J. A. Mills. (April 1997). 49pp. ISBN 1 85850 128 8 (ISBN 978 1 85850 128 4). In China, domestic trade in both tiger and rhinoceros products has been banned since 1993 and the maximum penalty for illicit trade is death. However, in this report TRAFFIC documents that Tiger and rhinoceros-based and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) continue to be available. Species in Danger series.

Under Siege: Poaching and protection of Greater One-horned Rhinoceroses in India (scanned PDF, 6.5 MB) Vivek Menon (August 1996). 114pp. ISBN 1 85850 102 4. Documents the results of a study by TRAFFIC India, with the support of WWF India. The study began in 1992, and field updates continued to be received until April 1996. The report presents information on rhinoceros population, poaching and trade in and use of rhinoceros horn.

Market Under Cover: The Rhinoceros Horn Trade in South Korea Judy A. Mills. (February 1994). 43pp. ISBN 1 85850 024 9 (ISBN 978 1 85850 024 9). This report is based on an investigation of the rhino horn trade in South Korea in May and June 1993, shortly after the Government's proclamation of an end to domestic rhino horn trade. The report provides evidence to suggest that such trade persisted at the time of the survey. Species in Danger series.

The Decline of the Black Rhino in Zimbabwe: Implications for Future Rhino Conservation (scanned PDF, 3.1 MB) Tom Milliken, Kristin Nowell, Jorgen B. Thomsen. (June 1993). 76pp. ISBN 1 85850 008 7 (ISBN 978 1 85850 008 9). An evaluation of Zimbabwe's Black Rhino conservation strategy in the face of continuous poaching and illegal trade in rhino horn, and an assessment of future options for rhino conservation. Species in Danger series.

The World Trade in Rhino Horn: A Review
(scanned PDF, 2.1 MB) Nigel Leader Williams. (September 1992). 40pp. ISBN 0 947613 86 2 (ISBN 978 0 947613 86 0). A summary of the available information on volumes and prices of rhino horn on world markets and an examination of policies to halt the rhino horn trade.

The Horns of a Dilemma: The Market for Rhino Horn in Taiwan Kristin Nowell, Chyi Wei Lien, Pei Chia Jai. (February 1992). 44pp. ISBN 0 947613 57 9 (ISBN 978 0 947613 57 0). A summary of the status of the domestic market for rhino horn in Taiwan in February 1992, with recommendations for a strategy to bring consumption of rhino horn under control. Species in Danger series. 

ARTIODACTYLA (Llamas, deer, antelopes etc)

Saiga Antelope Trade: Global trends with a focus on South-East Asia (700 KB) by S v Meibom; A Vaisman; N L S Horng; J Ng & Xu Hongfa. (2010). 41 pp. Published by TRAFFIC Europe, Brussels, Belgium.

No Licence to Kill: The Population and Harvest of Musk Deer and Trade in Musk in the Russian Federation and Mongolia (2 MB) Edited by: Volker Homes. (July 2004). 11pp. Extracts of this publication may be made for non-commercial in-house use, subject to the source being acknowledged. Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to the Copyright Unit, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, St Clements House, 1-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ, UK.

Against the Grain: Trade in Musk Deer Products in Singapore and Malaysia (780 KB) Debby Ng Elizabeth, A. Burgess. (April 2004). 32pp. ISBN 983 3393 01 2 (ISBN 978 983 3393 01 5). A study to investigate the demand for musk in Singapore and Malaysia, to document the trends in musk consumption, to identify the sources of musk and to understand their role in the international trade of musk.

Musk Market Survey Report (4.21MB) (2002) Endangered Species Scientific Commission of the People's Republic of China

Musk Deer Farming as a Conservation Tool in China (summary, 100 KB) (Scanned full report in English 3.7 MB) Rob Parry-Jones, Joyce Y. Wu. (2001). 36pp. (English and Chinese)

Trade in Musk and Bear Bile in India: A TRAFFIC India Study in the areas of Sikkim, Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council and Arunachal Pradesh Field Investigator: Sunil Subba. Facilitators: Dr. Ravikant Avasthe, Soumen Dey. (July 2000). 41pp.

Shahtoosh: The Nepal Connection Investigators: Fahmeeda Hanfee, Praduman Singh, Navin Singh Kahdka. (April 2000). 34pp. An investigative report. Published by: TRAFFIC India and WWF-India.

Shawls of Shame: The Shahtoosh Connection (1999). 8pp. Published by: TRAFFIC India and WWF- India.

Fashion Statement Spells Death for Tibetan Antelope (PDF 5.46MB) WWF, TRAFFIC East Asia, TRAFFIC India

On the Scent: Conserving Musk Deer – The Uses of Musk and Europe’s Role in its Trade (360 KB) Volker Homes. (July 1999). 57pp. ISBN 9 09012 795 X (ISBN 978 9 09012 795 8). The aim of this study is to summarise information on musk deer and musk itself as a background to describing the international musk trade and the demand of musk and to determine the significance of Europe’s role in global trade.

An Overview of World Trade in Cervid Antler with an Emphasis on the United States and Canada (scanned PDF, 4 MB) Christopher S. Robbins. (August 1997). 98pp.

From Steppe to Store: The Trade in Saiga Antelope Horn
Simba Chan, Anatoly V. Maksimuk, Lir V. Zhirnov. Compiled by: Stephen Nash. (May 1995). 47pp. ISBN 1 85850 068 0 (ISBN 978 1 85850 068 3). This report examines the history and present use of Saiga Antelope horn in Chinese medicine, status and commercial harvesting of the antelope in its range states and the trade in Saiga horn in East and Southeast Asia. 

Shawls of Shame (PDF 1.49MB) WWF and TRAFFIC India


Cultural Significance of Pacific Fruit Bats (Pteropus) to the Chamorro People of Guam: Conservation Implications (Scanned PDF, 2.6 MB) Leonora Sheeline July 1991. 78pp.